Virtual literacy instruction: An investigation of how elementary educators exhibited TPACK during COVID-19 school closures
Michelle Gonzalez 1 * , Gihan A. Mohamad 1
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1 William Paterson University, United States
* Corresponding Author


This mixed-methods study primarily explored how elementary educators exhibited TPACK in their virtual literacy instruction and the challenges they faced during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nine elementary-level educators participated in the study serving in the role of either general educator, special educator, or reading specialist. Data sources included a survey, email interviews, and teacher instructional materials. A hybrid thematic data analysis approach was utilized for the qualitative data, and basic descriptive statistical analysis was used for the survey data. TPACK and TPK were the most frequently coded domain among participants. TPACK was apparent across all areas of literacy instruction but less complex in the participants’ phonics instruction. The greatest relationship between perceived ability and demonstration of TPACK occurred in the TPACK domain. Through the lens of TPACK, identified challenges of virtual literacy instruction were student technology access and skills, student motivation and engagement, and student learning and accountability; identified successes addressed student emotional well-being, educator collaboration, and new learning.



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