The positive and negative effects of teacher attitudes and behaviors on student progress
Hakkı Kahveci 1 *
More Detail
1 Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Türkiye
* Corresponding Author


The attitudes and behaviors of teachers directly influence the cognitive, affective, and social development of students. These effects may be positive or negative and may last a long time. The aim of this study is to examine teacher behaviors and attitudes that can negatively or positively affect student progress. Using a qualitative research approach, the study adopted a basic interpretative research design. The study involved 229 undergraduate students studying at two state universities in Türkiye.  Under the headings of positive and negative themes, participants explained the most influential teacher behaviors and attitudes they encountered in primary, secondary, or high school. A total of 183 positive and 187 negative narratives were analyzed. Positive teacher behaviors and attitudes were grouped under three categories: effective communication and ethical attitude, professional competence and dedication, and individual support and trust. Students have been found to be more confident, motivated, and satisfied with their learning, and are more likely to trust their teachers when they exhibit these behaviors. Negative behavior and attitudes were classified into discrimination and injustice, classroom management and communication problems, and occupational incompetence and irresponsibility. In addition to reducing students' motivation to learn, self-confidence, and respect for teachers, these negative behaviors impede their social development. 



  • Akyüz, Y. (2019). Türk eğitim tarihi [History of Turkish education]. Pegem.
  • Aras, Ş., Ozan, S., Tımbıl, S., Şemin, S., & Kasapçı, O. (2016). Exposure of students to emotional and physical violence in the school environment. Arch Neuropsychiatry, 53(4), 303-310.
  • Arubayi, E. A. (1987). Improvement of instruction and teacher effectiveness: are student ratings reliable and valid? Higher Education, 16(3), 267–278.
  • Borhani Nejad, M., Rashidi, M., & Oloumi, M. M. (2013). Avicenna's educational views with emphasis on the education of hygiene and wellness. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 1(3), 201–205.
  • Broeckelman Post, M. A., Tacconelli, A., Guzmán, J., Rios, M., Calero, B., & Latif, F. (2015). Teacher misbehavior and its effects on student interest and engagement. Communication Education, 65(2), 204–212.
  • Cevizci, A. (2017). Felsefeye giriş [Introduction to philosophy]. Say.
  • Chory‐Assad, R. M. (2002). Classroom justice: Perceptions of fairness as a predictor of student motivation, learning, and aggression. Communication Quarterly, 50(1), 58–77.
  • Chory‐Assad, R. M., & Paulsel, M. L. (2004). Classroom justice: Student aggression and resistance as reactions to perceived unfairness. Communication Education, 53(3), 253-273.
  • Daniel, W., & Sapo, S. (2020). Teachers’ perception of professional ethics and its impact on their professionalism. American Journal of Educational Research, 8(6), 400-410.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Teacher learning that supports student learning. In B. Z. Presseissen (Ed.), Teaching for Intelligence, (pp. 91-100). Corwin Press.
  • Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(1), 1-44.
  • Darling-Hammond, L., & Baratz-Snowden, J. C. (2005). A good teacher in every classroom: Preparing the highly qualified teachers our children deserve. Jossey-Bass Inc Pub.
  • Dewey, J. (1986). Experience and education. The Educational Forum, 50(3), 241-252.
  • Erden, M., & Akgül, S. (2010). Predictive power of math anxiety and perceived social support from teacher for primary students’ mathematics achievement. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 6(1), 3-16.
  • Erdoğdu, M. (2013). Ana-baba tutumları ve öğretmen davranışları ile öğrencilerin akademik başarıları arasındaki ilişkiler [Relationships between parental attitudes and teacher behaviors and students' academic achievement]. Sakarya University Journal of Education Faculty, 14, 33-46.
  • Follman, J. (1995). Elementary public school pupil rating of teacher effectiveness. Child Study Journal, 25(1), 57–78.
  • Glenn, H. S., & Nelsen, J. (1989). Raising self-reliant children in a self-indulgent world. Fairbanks.
  • Goodboy, A. K, Bolkan, S., Shin, M., & Chiasson, R. M. (2022) Affective and interest consequences of lecture misbehaviors for students with mastery goals. Communication Education, 71(3), 223-243.
  • Goodboy, A. K., & Bolkan, S. (2009). College teacher misbehaviors: Direct and indirect effects on student communication behavior and traditional learning outcomes. Western Journal of Communication, 73(2), 204–219.
  • Goodboy, A. K., & Myers, S. A. (2015). Revisiting instructor misbehaviors: A revised typology and development of a measure. Communication Education, 64(2), 133-153,
  • Goodboy, A. K., Bolkan, S., &. Baker, J. P. (2018) Instructor misbehaviors impede students’ cognitive learning: testing the causal assumption. Communication Education, 67(3), 308-329.
  • Gouveia-Pereira, M., Vala, J., & Correia, I. (2016). Teachers’ legitimacy: Effects of justice perception and social comparison processes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(1), 1–15.
  • Gutek, L. G. (2006). Eğitime felsefi ve ideolojik yaklaşımlar [Philosophical and ideological approaches to education]. (Trans. N. Kale). Ütopya.
  • Gündüz, M. (2016). Understanding teacher candidates’ opinions on violence in primary and secondary schools’ explores the narratives. Marmara University Atatürk Education Faculty Journal of Educational Sciences, 42, 261-276.
  • Güven, D. (2010). Teaching as a profession: The case of Turkey. Bogazici University Journal of Education, 27(2), 13-21.
  • Hatunoğlu, B. Y. & Hatunoğlu, A. (2010). Öğretmenlerin fiziksel cezalandırmaya ilişkin görüşleri [Teachers' views on corporal punishment]. Atatürk University Journal of Graduate School of Social Sciences, 6(2), 105-115.
  • Horan, S. M., Chory, R. M., & Goodboy, A. K. (2010). Understanding students’ classroom justice experiences and responses. Communication Education, 59(4), 453–474.
  • Işık, A., Çiltaş, A., & Baş, F. (2010). Teacher training and teaching. Atatürk University Journal of Graduate School of Social Sciences, 14(1), 53-62.
  • Johnston, J. S. (2010). John Dewey and pragmatism in education. In R. Bailey, R. Barrow, D. Carr & C. McCarthy (Eds.), Handbook of Philosophy of Education (pp. 96-108). Sage.
  • Karataş, S., Caner, M., Kahyaoğlu, R. B., & Kahya, S. (2019). Perceptions of pre - service teachers on ethical teacher and professional ethics course. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 7(1), 29-49.
  • Kelsey, D. M., Kearney, P., Plax, T. G., Allen, T. H., & Ritter, K. J. (2004). College students’ attributions of teacher misbehaviors. Communication Education, 53(1), 40-55.
  • Koçak, S. & Bostancı, A. B. (2019). Social justice in classroom management. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences (JFES), 52(3), 915-942.
  • Köksal, N. (2008). Assessment of generic competences of teaching profession by teacher, school director and consultants from the Ministry of National Education. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 23(23), 36-46.
  • Kusumaningrum, D. E., Sumarsono, R. B., & Gunawan, I. (2019). Professional ethics and teacher teaching performance: Measurement of teacher empowerment with a soft system methodology approach. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 5(4), 611-624.
  • McCroskey, J. C., Valencic, K. M., & Richmond, V. P. (2004). Toward a general model of instructional communication. Communication Quarterly, 52(3), 197–210.
  • Merriam, S. B. (2015). Qualitative research: Designing, implementing, and publishing a study. In V. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of research on scholarly publishing and research methods (pp. 125-140). IGI Global.
  • Merriam, S. B., & Grenier, R. S. (Eds.). (2019). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Molla, T. & Nolan, A. (2020) Teacher agency and professional practice. Teachers and Teaching, 26(1), 67-87.
  • Myers, S. A. (2002). Perceived aggressive instructor communication and student state motivation, learning, and satisfaction. Communication Reports, 15, 113–121.
  • Özdemir, S. & Sezgin, F. (2011). Primary school students’ perceptions of principal and teacher support, perceived violence, and school satisfaction. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 12(2), 181-199.
  • Rocca, K. A. (2009). Participation in the college classroom: The impact of instructor immediacy andverbal aggression. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 43, 22-33.
  • Saldana, J. (2013). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage.
  • Sezer, Ş. (2018). The effects of teachers’ classroom management attitudes on students’ development: a phenomenological analysis. H. U. Journal of Education, 33(2), 534-549.
  • Shields, C. M. (2004). Dialogic leadership for social justice: Overcoming pathologies of silence. Educational Administration Quarterly, 40(1), 109-132.
  • Sürücü, A. & Ünal, Aç (2018). Investigation of teacher behavior increasing and reducing student motivation. OPUS International Journal of Society Researches, 8(14), 253-295.
  • Tomul, E., Çelik, K., & Taş, A. (2012). Justice in the classroom: Evaluation of teacher behaviors according to students' perceptions. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 48, 59-72.
  • Vallade, J. I. (2021) Instructor misbehavior frequency, severity, and impact on learning: Comparing student and teacher perceptions. Western Journal of Communication, 85(2), 275-298,
  • Walker, R. J. (2008). Twelve characteristics of an effective teacher: A longitudinal, qualitative, quasi-research study of in-service and pre-service teachers’ opinions. Educational Horizons, 87(1), 61–68.
  • Wimberly, R. C., Faulkner, G. L., & Moxley, R. L. (1978). Dimensions of teacher effectiveness. Teaching Sociology, 6(1), 7–20.
  • Wubbels, T., & Brekelmans, M. (2005). Two decades of research on teacher–student relationships in class. International Journal of Educational Research, 43(1-2), 6-24.
  • Yurtal, F., & Artut, K. (2010). An investigation of school violence through Turkish children’s drawings. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(1), 50-62.
  • Zhang, Q. (2007). Teacher misbehaviors as learning demotivators in college classrooms: A cross-cultural investigation in China, Germany, Japan, and the United States. Communication Education, 56, 209–227.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.