The effectiveness of POW + C-SPACE strategy provided by parents of children with writing difficulties on story-writing skills
Kürşat Öğülmüş 1 *
More Detail
1 Kırıkkale University, Faculty of Education, Turkey
* Corresponding Author


In this study, the POW + C-SPACE (Pick my idea-Organize my notes-Write and say more + Characters-Setting-Purpose-Action-Conclusion-Emotions) strategy developed on the basis of the self-regulated strategy development model (SRSDM) was presented through families to improve the story-writing skills of children with writing difficulties (WD) and its effects were evaluated. The study employed a multiple probe design with probe conditions across subjects, one of the single-subject research models. The study group consisted of three mothers and their children with WD. Mothers were taught the POW + C-SPACE strategy and were asked to present what they learned to their children at home. As a result of the study, it was concluded that when the POW + C-SPACE strategy was presented through parents, it was effective in developing the story-writing skills of children with WD. 



  • Albertson, L. R., & Billingsley, F. F. (1997, March). Improving young writers’ planning and reviewing skills while story-writing. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
  • Almadani, F. (2013). The effect of pick organize write (pow)+ c-space strategy toward the ability in writing narrative text at the second year students of smpn 1 kampar kiri hilir kampar regency [Doctoral dissertation]. Sultan Syarif Kasim II State Islamic University, Indonesia.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing.
  • Asmara, L. T. (2016). POW+C-SPACE (Pick idea, Organize, and Write+Characters, Setting, Purpose, Action, Conclusion, emotions): A strategy to teach writing viewed from students’ creativity [Doctoral dissertation]. Universitas Sebelas Maret, Endonezya.
  • Baker, B. L., & McCurry, M. C. (1984). School based training: An alternative for parents predicted to demonstrate low teaching proficiency following group training. Education and Training of the Mental Retarded, 19(4), 261-267.
  • Baydık, B. (2011). Examining the use of metacognitive reading strategies of students with reading difficulties and their teachers’ reading comprehension instruction practices. Education and Science, 36(162), 301-319.
  • Brown, J. A., & Woods, J. J. (2015). Effects of a triadic parent-implemented home-based communication intervention for toddlers. Journal of Early Intervention, 37(1), 44-68.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2018). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods]. Pegem Akademi.
  • Çakmak, S. (2011). The Effectiveness of the family training program provided by being a model with video in helping visually impaired children acquire self-care behaviors [Doctoral dissertation]. Gazi University, Ankara.
  • Cavkaytar, A. (2007). Turkish parents as teacher: Teaching parents how to teach self-care and domestic skills to their children with mental retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 42(1), 85-93.
  • Cavkaytar, A., & Pollard, E. (2009). Effectiveness of parent and therapist collaboration program (PTCP) for teaching self-care and domestic skills to individual with autism. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 44(3), 381-394.
  • Chenard, M. N. (2014). An evaluation of efficacy of self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) on improving freshman college student’s writing abilities [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Southern Maine Portland, USA.
  • Cosbey, J., & Muldoon, D. (2017). Eat-Up family-centered feeding intervention to promote food acceptance and decrease challenging behaviors: A single-case experimental design replicated across three families of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47, 564-578.
  • Delano, M. E. (2007). Use of Strategy instruction to improve the story writing skills of a student with Asperger syndrome. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22(4), 252-258.
  • Demircan, Y. (2014). Investigation of 5th grade students’ self- regulation strategies and motivational beliefs accoding to in-class activities and academic achievement levels [Master’s thesis). Mersin University, Mersin.
  • Dodd, B., & Carr, A. (2003). Young children’s letter-sound knowledge. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 128-137.
  • Douglas, S. N., Kammes, R., & Nordquist, E. (2018). Online communication training for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 39(3), 415-425.
  • Ergül, C. (2012). Evaluation of reading performances of students with reading problems for the risk of learning disabilities. Educational Sciences:Theory and Practice, 12(3), 2033-2057.
  • Güzel-Özmen, R. (2006). The effectiveness of modified cognitive strategy instruction in writing with mildly mentally retarded Turkish students. Exceptional Children, 72(3), 281-297.
  • Hamstra, B. L., & Blote, A. W. (1993). A longitudinal study on dysgraphic handwriting in primary school. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26(10), 689-699.
  • Harris, K. R., Graham, S., Mason, L. H., & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Brookes.
  • Kanık, N. (1993). Özürlü bebeklerin eğitimi ve aile katılımı [Training of disabled infants and family involvement]. Journal of Special Education, 1(3), 14-17.
  • Kargın, T. (2004). Effectiveness of a family‐focused early intervention program in the education of children with hearing impairments living in rural areas. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 51(4), 401-418.
  • Kargın, T., Güldenoğlu, B., & Ergül, C. (2017). Early literacy profile of kindergarten children: Ankara sample. Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences Journal of Special Education, 18(1), 61-87.
  • Kirk, S. A. (1977). Specific learning disabilities. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 6(3), 23-26.
  • McCathren, R. B. (2010). Case study: parent-implemented prelinguistic milieu teaching with a high risk dyad. Communication disorders quarterly, 31(4), 243-252.
  • Meyers, A. K. (2015). Academic and behavioral effects of self-regulated strategy development on children with writing difficulties and ADHD symptoms [Master’s thesis]. East Caroline University, USA.
  • Öğülmüş, K. (2018). The effect of an instruction package developed on the basis of self-regulated strategy development model on story writing skills of students with specific learning disabilities [Doctoral dissertation]. Osmangazi University, Eskişehir.
  • Öğülmüş, K., & Melekoğlu, M. A. (2021). The impact of POW + C-Space strategy on story writing skills of Turkish students with specific learning disabilities. Educational Policy and Strategic Research, 16(1), 287-305.
  • Phelps, J., Stempel, L., & Speck, G. (1985). The Children’s Handwriting Scale: A new diagnostic tool. Journal of Educational Research, 79(1), 46-50.
  • Power, B. M., & Hubbard, R. S. (1996). Language development a reader for teachers. Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • Rogers, L. A., & Graham, S. (2008). A meta-analysis of single subject design writing intervention research. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 879-906.
  • Rumsey, I., & Ballard, K. D. (1985). Teaching self‐management strategies for independent story writing to children with classroom behavior difficulties. Educational Psychology, 5(2), 147-157.
  • Ryan, T. G. (2021). Problem-based learning opportunities within Ontario (Canada) elementary health and physical education. Journal of Pedagogical Sociology and Psychology, 3(2), 66-74.
  • Smith, T. E. C., Gartin, B. C., Murdick, N. L. & Hilton, A. (2006). Families and children with special needs. Pearson Education.
  • Sönmez, M. (2013). Aile katılımı [Family involvement]. In A. Cavkaytar (Ed.), Özel eğitimde aile eğitimi ve rehberliği [Family training and guidance in special education] (pp. 121-144). Vize Publishing.
  • Sperger, D. R. (2010). An exploratory pretest and posttest investigation of the effects of the self-regulated strategy development approach to writing instruction on middle school boys’ writing achievement [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Hartford, USA.
  • Staal, L. A. (2002). Exploring story-writing strategies with students diagnosed with learning disabilities: A case-study approach [Doctoral dissertation]. University of New Mexico, USA.
  • Stephenson, J. R., & Dowrick, M. (2000). Parent priorities in communication intervention for young students with severe disabilities. Education and Training in Mental Reterdation and Developmental Disabilities, 35, 25-35.
  • Tekin-İftar, E. (2018). Çoklu yoklama modelleri [Multiple examination models]. In E. Tekin-İftar (Ed.), Eğitim ve davranış bilimlerinde tek- denekli araştırmalar [Single subject researches in educational and behavioral sciences] (pp. 217-244). Vize Publishing.
  • Tekin-İftar, E., & Kırcaali-İftar, G. (2013). Özel eğitimde yanlışsız öğretim yöntemleri [Faultless teaching methods in special education]. Vize Publishing.
  • Tseng, M. H., & Cermak, S. A. (1993). The influence of ergonomic factors and perceptual–motor abilities on handwriting performance. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47(10), 919-926.
  • Uygun, M. (2012). The effects of self-regulated strategy development on writing expression, self-regulation of writing, retention and writing attitude [Doctoral dissertation]. Hacettepe University, Ankara.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.