The effect of STEM supported research-inquiry-based learning approach on the scientific creativity of 7th grade students
Merve Gül Kırıcı 1, Hasan Bakırcı 2
More Detail
1 Ministry of Education, Turkey
2 Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Education, Turkey


This research aims to examine the effect of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) supported research-inquiry-based learning approach on the scientific creativity of 7th grade students.  A pre-test and post-test quasi-experimental design with the control group was adopted into the research. The participants of this research were 64 secondary school students, 35 of whom were in the experimental group and 29 of whom were in the control group. To examine the effect of the intervention, a scientific creativity test was used and Wilcoxon signed ranks test, Mann-Whitney U-test, dependent t-tests were performed to analyse the data. The results revealed a significant difference in scientific creativity test scores, favoring the experimental group. When the subscales originality, flexibility and fluency were analysed, a significant difference in favor of the post-test of the experimental group was noted. However, no significant difference was found between the pre-post test scores of the control group. This means that the intervention has the potential to increase the scientific creativity of seventh grade students. Drawing on the results of this research, we argue that STEM supported education should be used to identify the appropriate steps of the engineering design process for secondary school and high school levels. 



  • Bakırcı, H. & Kutlu, E. (2018). Determination of science teachers’ views on STEM approach. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, 9(2), 367-389.
  • Basham, J. D. & Marino, M. T. (2013). Understanding STEM education and supporting students through universal design for learning. Journal of Teaching Exceptional Children, 45(4), 8-15.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2011). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı [Data analysis handbook for social sciences]. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Publishing.
  • Bybee, R. W. (2010). Advancing STEM education: A 2020 vision. Technology and Engineering Teacher, 70(1), 30-35.
  • Ceylan, S. (2014). A study for preparing an instructional design based on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) approach on the topic of acids and bases at secondary school science course (Unpublished master thesis). Uludağ University, Turkey.
  • Chippetta, E. L. & Adams, A. D. (2004). Inquiry-based instruction. The Science Teacher, 71(2), 46-50.
  • Christensen, L. B. (2004). Experimental methodology. Pearson Education.
  • Çelik, K. & Çavaş, B. (2012). The effect of inquiry based learning method for the teaching for reproduction, growth and development in the living things unit on the students’ academic achievements, science process skills and attitudes toward science and technology course. Journal Ege Education, 13(2), 50-75.
  • Demir, A. & Çökelez, A. (2012, June). Investigation of the conceptual learning of 6th grade students on the concepts of mass, weight and gravity. Paper presented at 10th National Science and Mathematics Education Congress. Niğde University, Turkey.
  • Dong-Ju, O., Jin-Ho, B. & Su-Hong, P. (2016). The effects of science based enrichment STEAM gifted program on creative thinking activities and emotional intelligence of elementary science gifted students. Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education, 35(1), 13-25.
  • Dumanoğlu, F. (2018). Effect of science, technology, engineering and mathematics activities on seventh grade students' academic achievement and attitudes (Unpublished master thesis). İstanbul University, Turkey.
  • Gazibeyoğlu, T. (2018). Investigation of the effect of stem applications on achievement in force and energy unit and attitudes towards science course of 7th grade students (Unpublished master thesis). Kastamonu University, Turkey.
  • Genek, S. E., & Küçük, Z. D. (2020). Investigation of scientific creativity levels of elementary school students who enrolled in a STEM program. Elementary Education Online, 19(3), 1715-1728.
  • Gökbayrak, S. & Karışan, D. (2017). An investigation of the effects of STEM based activities on preservice science teacher’s science process skills. Western Anatolia Journal of Educational Sciences, 8(2), 63-84.
  • Gülhan, F. & Şahin, F. (2018). The effects of STEAM activities 7th grade students’ academic achievement, STEAM attitude and scientific creativities. Journal of Human Sciences, 15(3), 1675-1699.
  • Günbatar, M. S. & Bakırcı, H. (2019). STEM teaching intention and computational thinking skills of pre-service teachers. Education and Information Technologies, 24, 1615–1629.
  • Havice, W. L. (2015). Integrative STEM education for children and our communities. The Technology Teacher, 75(1), 15-17.
  • Hu, W. & Adey, P. (2002). A scientific creativity test for secondary school students. International Journal of Science Education, 24 (4), 389–403.
  • International Technology Education Association (ITEA) (2007). Standards for technological literacy: content for the study of technology. www.iteaconnect.ora/TAA/PDFs/xstnd.pdf
  • Jin-Ho, B., Kum-Hyun, S., Bong-Hee, Y., Jin-Su, K., Guk-In, H., Sung-Gil, K., …Hae-Jin, K. (2014). The effects of science lesson applying STEAM education on creative thought activities and emotional intelligence of elementary school students. Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education, 33(4), 762-772.
  • Kara, Y. & Şahin, B. (2019, April). Investigation of science teacher candidates' views on measurement and evaluation in STEM Education. Paper presented at the International Conference on Science, Mathematics, Entrepreneurship and Technology Education, İzmir/Turkey.
  • Kara, Y. (2018, October). Determination of the metaphors of science teacher candidates on STEM education. Paper presented at the 4th International Contemporary Educational Research Congress, Muğla, Turkey.
  • Karasar, N. (2003). Scientific research method. Ankara: Nobel Publishing
  • Karışan, D. & Yurdakul, Y. (2017).The effects of microprocessors based science technology engineering and mathemetics (STEM) investigations on 6th grade students’ attitudes towards these subject areas. Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Education Journal of Educational Sciences, 8(1), 37-52.
  • Keçeci, G. & Kırbağ-Zengin, F. (2016). The effects of ınquiry-based science teaching on students' science process skills and attitudes. International Journal of Social Science, 47, 269-287.
  • Kızılaslan, A. (2013). Chemistry education students’ view on inquiry-based learning. The Journal of Academic Social Science, 1(1), 12-22.
  • Kim, D., Ko, D., Han, M. & Hong, S. (2014). The effects of science lessons applying STEAM education program on the creativity and interest levels of elementary students. Journal of the Korean Association for Science Education, 34(1), 43-54.
  • Koyunlu-Ünlü, Z. K. & Dere, Z. (2018). Evaluation of STEM activities prepared by pre-school teacher candidates. Journal of Ahi Evran University Kırşehir Faculty of Education, 19(2), 1502-1512.
  • Lee, S. & Lee, H. (2013). The effects of science lesson applying STEAM education on the creativity and science related attitudes of elementary school students. Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education, 32(1), 60-70.
  • Lim, B. R. (2001). Guidelines for designing inquiry-based learning on the web: Online professional development of educators (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Indiana University, United States.
  • Ministry of National Education. (2018). Science curriculum. Ankara: State Books Printing House.
  • Minner, D. D., Levy, J. A. & Century, J. (2010). Inquiry-based science instruction what is it and does it matter? Results from a research synthesis years 1984 to 2002. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4). 474-496.
  • National Research Council (NRC) (2002). Approaches to improve engineering design. Washington: The National Academic Press.
  • Nurtanto, M., Pardjono, P., Widarto, W. & Ramdani, S. D. (2020). The effect of STEM-EDP in professional learning on automotive engineering competence in vocational high school. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 8(2), 633-649.
  • Partnership for 21st Century Skills (2009). P21 framework definitions.
  • Patton, M. Q. (2005). Qualitative research. Encyclopedia of statistics in behavioral science.
  • Pekbay, C. (2017). Effects of science technology engineering and mathematics activities on middle school students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Hacettepe University, Turkey.
  • Pizzolato, N., Fazio, C. & Battaglia, O. R. (2014). Open inquiry-based learning experiences: A case study in the context of energy exchange by thermal radiation. European Journal of Physics, 35(1), 1–16.
  • Ryu, J. & Lee, K. (2013). The effects of brain-based STEAM teaching-learning program on creativity and emotional intelligence of the science-gifted elementary students and general students. The Korean Elementary Science Education Society, 32(1), 36-46.
  • Sağdıç, M. & Bakırcı, H. (2020). The effect of guided research ınquiry teaching method on 7th grade students' STEM attitudes. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Social Sciences, 22(2), 363-376.
  • Sağdıç, M., Bakırcı, H. & Boynukara, Z. (2019). The effect of guided ınquiry teaching model on the scientific process skills of students: the case study of force and energy unit. Yüzüncü Yıl University Journal of Education Faculty, 16(1), 943-959.
  • Samuels, K. ve Seymour, R. (2015). The middle school curriculum: Engineering anyone? Technology and Engineering Teacher, 74(6), 8-12.
  • Siew, N. M., & Ambo, N. (2020). The scientific creativity of fifth graders in a STEM project-based cooperative learning approach. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 78(4), 627-643.
  • Stylianidou, F., Ormerod, F. & Ogborn, J. (2002). Analysis of science textbook pictures about energy and pupils readings of them. International Journal of Science Education, 24(3), 257-283.
  • Şahin, A., Ayar, M. C. & Adıgüzel, T. (2014). STEM related after-school program activities and associated outcomes on student learning. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 14(1), 1-26.
  • Taşdemir, A. & Demirbaş, M. (2010). The level of correlation of concepts that primary students seen topics in science and technology class with daily life. International Journal of Human Sciences, 7(1), 124-148.
  • Thier H. D., & Davis, B. (2001). Developing inquiry-based science materials. A guide for educators. Teachers College Press.
  • Trna, J., Trnova, E. & Sibor, J. (2012). Implementation of inquiry-based science education in science teacher training. Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World, 2(4). 199-209.
  • Tunc, C., & Bagceci, B. (2021). Teachers' views of the implementation of STEM approach in secondary schools and the effects on students. Pedagogical Research, 6(1), 2-11.
  • Vogt, W. P., Gardner, D. C. & Haeffele, L. M. (2012). When to use what research design. Guilford Press.
  • Wilder, M. & Shuttleworth, P. (2005). Cell inquiry: A 5E learning cycle lesson, science activities: Classroom projects and curriculum ideas. Science Activities, 41(4). 37-43.
  • Wood, W. B. (2003). Inquiry-based undergraduate teaching in life sciences at large research universities: A perspective on the boyer commission report. Cell Biology Education, 2, 112-116.
  • Yamak, H., Bulut, N. & Dündar, S. (2014). The effect of STEM activities on 5th grade students' scientific process skills and attitudes towards science. Gazi University Journal of Education, 34(2), 249-265.
  • Yasak, M. T. (2017). Applications of science, technology, engineering and mathematics in design based science education: Sample of the theme of pressure (Unpublished master thesis).Cumhuriyet University, Turkey.
  • Yürümezoğlu, K., Ayaz, S. & Çökelez, A. (2009). Grade 7-9 students’ perceptions of energy and related concepts. Necatibey Faculty of Education Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 3(2), 52-73.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.