Learning outcomes and perceptions of midwifery students about peer-teaching and lecture method in gynecology and infertility course
Mitra Safari 1 * , Behrouz Yazdanpanah 1, Saphora Hatamipour 2
More Detail
1 Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran
2 Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran
* Corresponding Author


This study was conducted to compare teaching gynecology and infertility courses with both lecture and peer methods. In 2018, a quasi-experimental study was designed at the midwifery department of a state university in Iran. A total of 32 midwifery students were participated in the study. During the first eight sessions, 50% of the course content was taught in the form of same-level peer – teaching. The last eight sessions of the course were taught by lecture. At the end of each session, students were given a post-test, also midterm and final exam. At the end of exams, each student was asked to complete a questionnaire assessing students' perception about teaching methods. The average mid- term exam score for peer – teaching (34.5 ± 5.5 ) was significantly (p<0.01 ) higher than the lecture method (30.4 ± 5.8 ), as well as average final exam score (7.2 ± 1.5  vs. 5.8 ± 1.6 ). The average overall student perception score for the peer – teaching method was significantly (p<0.01 ) higher than the corresponding score for the lecture method (86.8 ± 11.5  vs. 74.1 ± 12.4 ). Using the peer education as a complementary method in teaching theoretical courses along with the traditional lecture method seems to be appropriate.



  • Adib-Hajbaghery, M., &Rafiee, S.(2016).Comparing the effectiveness of group discussion and lecture methods on the learning of medical sciences students: A Review Study.Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 16, 53-62.
  • Akbarzadeh, M., Zangiabadi, M., Moattari, M., &Tabatabaei, H. (2009). Comparing the effect of teaching breast self-examination by peers and health care personnel on students knowledge and attitude. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 8(2), 195-203.
  • Almasi Turk, S., Mousavizadeh, A. &Roozbehi, A. (2015). The effect of peer assisted learning on medical students’ learning in a limb anatomy course. Research and Development in Medical Education, 4(2), 115-122. doi:10.15171/rdme.2015.021
  • Azizi, A., Amirian, F., & Amirian, M. (2008). Effects of peer education, education by physician and giving pamphlets on HIV knowledge in high school students: A comparative study. Journal of Hayat, 14(1), 5-12.
  • Blank, W. A., Blankenfeld, H., Vogelmann, R., Linde, K., & Schneider, A. (2013). Can near-peer medical students effectively teach a new curriculum in physical examination? BMC Medical Education, 13(165), 1-6.
  • Buckley, S. & Zamora, J. ( 2007). Effects of participation in a cross-year peer tutoring program in clinical examination skills on volunteer tutors' skills and attitudes towards teachers and teaching. BMC Medical Education,7, 20.
  • Burgess, A., &Nestel, D. (2014). Facilitating the development of professional identity through peer assisted learning in medical education. Advances in Medical Education and Practice,30(5), 403-406.
  • Büscher, R., Weber, D., Büscher, A., Hölscher, M., Pohlhuis, S., Groes, B., & Hoyer, P.F. (2013). Evaluation of the peer teaching program at the University children´s hospital Essen: a single center experience.GMS Z Med Ausbild, 30(2), Doc25.doi:10.3205/zma000868
  • Chan, N. N., Phan, C.W., AniyahSalihan, N.H., &Dipolog-Ubanan, G.F. (2016). Peer assisted learning in higher education: roles, perceptions and efficacy.Pertanika Journal of Social Science &Humanities,24(4), 1811 – 1822.
  • Cortright, R. N., Collins, H. L., &DiCarlo, S. E. (2005). Peer instruction enhanced meaningful learning: ability to solve novel problems. Advances in Physiological Education, 29(2), 107-111.
  • Eslami Akbar, R., Hojat, M., &BadiyepeymaieJahromi, Z. (2015).Comparison of teaching through peer learning with the lecture method on the learning level of anesthesiology students at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences.Journal Nursing Education, 4(3),56-65.
  • Field, M., Burke, J. M., McAllister, D., & Lloyd, D. M. ( 2007). Peer-assisted learning: a novel approach to clinical skills learning for medical students. Medical Education, 41(4), 411-8.
  • Ghasemzadeh, I., Aghamolaei, T., &Hosseini-Parandar, F. (2015).Evaluation of medical students of teacher-based and student-based teaching methods in infectious diseases course.Journal of Medicine and Life,8(3), 113-117.
  • Glynn, L., MacFarlane, A., Kelly, M., Cantillon, P., & Murphy, A. (2006). Helping each other to learn--a process evaluation of peer assisted learning. BMC Medical Education, 8, 6-18.
  • Gottlieb, Z., Epstein, S., & Richards, J. (2017). Near-peer teaching program for medical students.The Clinical Teacher, 14, 164–169. doi: 10.1111/tct.12540.
  • Haji-Hosseini, F., Izadi, A., Mahboobi, M., &Mohammadtabar, R. (2013). Effect of peer education on practical skills learning of nursing students in clinical skill lab (CSL) . Journal of MazandaranUniversity of Medical Sciences,1(1), 13-17.
  • Hammond, J. A., Bithell, C. P., Jones, L., &Bidgood, P. (2010). A first-year experience of student-directed peer assisted learning. Active Learning in Higher Education,11(3), 201-212.
  • Harris , A. D., McGregor, J. C.,Perencevich, E. N.,Furuno, J. P., Zhu, J., Peterson, D. E., & Finkelstein, J. (2006). The Use and interpretation of quasi-experimental studies in medical informatics.Journal of American Medical Informatics Association, 13(1), 16–23.doi: 10.1197/jamia.M1749
  • House, J. B., Choe, C. H., Wourman, H. L., Berg, K. M., Fischer, J. P., & Santen, S. A. (2017). Efficient and effective use of peer teaching for medical student simulation. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(1), 137–141.
  • Ibraheem, M. D., &Aijaz, N. (2011). Dynamics of peer assisted learning and teaching at an entrepreneurial university: an experience to share. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(12), 93-99.
  • Issenberg, S. B., McGaghie, W. C., Petrusa, E. R., Lee Gordon, D., &Scalese, R. J. (2005). Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher,27(1), 10-28.
  • Jackson, T. A., & Evans, D. J. (2012). Can medical students teach? A near-peer-led teaching program for year 1students.Advances in Physiology Education,36 (3), 192-6.
  • Kimyai, S., JafariNavimipour, E., &Mohammadi, N. (2011).The effect of peer education on practical skills training of dentistry students in restorative preclinic. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 11(4), 418-424.
  • Krych, A. J., March, C. N., Bryan, R. E., Peake, B. J., Pawlina, W., & Carmichael, S. W. (2005). Reciprocal peer teaching: students teaching students in the gross anatomy laboratory. Clinical Anatomy, 18(4), 296-301.
  • Mahram, M., Mahram, B., &Mousavinasab, S. N. (2009). Comparison between the effect of teaching through student-based group discussion and lecture on learning in medical students.Strides in Development of Medical Education, 5(2), 71-79.
  • Manyama, M., Stafford, R., Mazyala, E., Lukanima, A., Magele, N., Kidenya, B., &Kauki, J. (2016).Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching.BMC Medical Education, 16(95), 1-12.
  • MoradiDirin, M., Verdi, M., Delkhah, H., Tabrizian, K., &Izadpanah, F. (2013).Impact of pharmacy training software, on pharmacy students’ knowledge in Zabol University of Medical Sciences and their opinion about it.Iranian Journal of Medical Education,12(12), 925-934.
  • Morowatisharifabad, M., AlizadehMradkandi, A., MozaffariKhosravi, H., Fallahzadeh, H., &MomeniSarvestani, M. (2012).Comparison of the effect nutrition education by peers and health personnel on knowledge, attitude and nutritional indices of 18-35 years old women of Orumieh Health Care Centers.The Journal of TolooBehdasht, 11(1), 54-64.
  • MotevaselianM,&Nasiriaian K. (2014) Impact of Near-peer teaching on Learning Dressing Skill among Nursing Students. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 14(8), 670-676.
  • Noori Sistani, M., MerghatiKhoi, E., &Taghdisi, M.H. (2010). Promoting knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the mothers in their girls pubertal health based on peer education approach. Journal of Babol University of Medical Science,11(6), 33-39.
  • Rahmani, A., MohajjelAghdam, A. R., FathiAzar, E., &Abdullahzadeh, F. (2007).Comparing the effects of concept mapping and integration method on nursing students' learning in nursing process course in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences.Iranian Journal of Medical Education,7(1), 41- 49.
  • Rashid, M. S., Sobowale, O., &Gore, D. (2011). A near-peer teaching program designed, developed and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates for final year medical students sitting the final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). BMC Medical Education 7(11), 11.doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-11-11.
  • Roscoe, R. D., & Chi, M. T. H. (2007). Understanding tutor learning: knowledge-building and knowledge-telling in peer tutors’ explanations and questions. Review of Educational Research,77(4), 534-574.
  • Roshan, R., Sha'eeri, M. R., &Yaghoobi, H. (2005).The Effect of peer consoler in increasing non-native freshman students' mental health, adjustment, and academic achievement.DaneshvaRaftar,12(10), 35-42.
  • Sadeghi, R., Sedaghat, M. M., &ShaAhmadi, F. (2014). Comparison of the effect of lecture and blended teaching methods on students‘ learning and satisfaction. Journal Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism,2(4), 146-150.
  • Safari, M., Yazdanpanah, B., Ghafarian, H. R., &Yazdanpanah, S. (2006). Comparing the effect of lecture and discussion methods on students` learning and satisfaction.Iranian Journal of Medical Education,6(1), 59-64.
  • Secomb, J. (2008). A systematic review of peer teaching and learning in clinical education.Journal of Clinical Nursing,17(6), 703-16.
  • Seema, D., &SyedaKauser, A. (2014). Perceptions of learners about peer assisted learning and lectures. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR),3(11), 1449-55.
  • Srivastava, T., Waghmare, L., Mishra, V., Rawekar, A., Quazi, N., &Jagzape, A. (2015). Peer Teaching to foster learning in physiology. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 9(8), 1-6.
  • Stone, R., Cooper, S., & Cant, R. (2013). The value of peer learning in undergraduate nursing education: a systematic review. ISRN Nursing, 3(2013), 1-10. doi:10.1155/2013/930901.
  • Topping K. J. (1996). The effectiveness of peer tutoring in further and higher education: a typology and review of the literature. Higher Education, 32, 321–345.
  • Topping, K. J. (1988). Peer Assessment between Students in Colleges and Universities. Review of Educational Research, 68(3), 249-276.
  • Velez, J. J., Cano, J., Whittington, M. S., & Wolf, K. J. (2011).Cultivating change through peer teaching. Journal of Agricultural Education, 52(1), 40-49.
  • Zarifnejad, G., Mirhaghi, A., &Rajabpoor, M.(2018). Does peer education increase academic achievement in first year students? A mixed method study.Journal of Peer Learning, 11, 89-98.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.