How international students can well understand adapted online collaboration project? The case of BIPA learners
Wahyudi Rahmat 1, R. Lina Tiawati 2, R. Kunjana Rahardi 3, Saaduddin Saaduddin 4 *
More Detail
1 Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Universitas PGRI Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, Indonesia
2 Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, Universitas PGRI Sumatera Barat, Indonesia, Indonesia
3 Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sanata Dharma Univerisity, Indonesia
4 Faculty of Performing Arts, Institut Seni Indonesia Padang Panjang, Indonesia
* Corresponding Author


Exploring and adapting learning development has been fascinating in recent decades. One is project-based online intercultural collaborative learning for international BIPA students in Thailand. Two simultaneous project-based learning classes are used in the quasi-experimental investigation. Indonesian students collaborate online in experimental classes. Knowledge exams and project product evaluations provided quantitative data, while communication recordings and semi-structured interviews provided qualitative data. The study found that BIPA novices improved from PBL adaptation. Online cooperation improves target culture theory and micro-setting life experiences, which aids early BIPA learning. Based on identified challenges, project-based online intercultural collaborative learning is advised to balance group work and individual aid for BIPA beginner learners, give team dynamics more time, and better use technology resources.  



  • Brown, L., & Park, M. Y. (2020). Culture in language learning and teaching. Teaching Korean as a Foreign Language: Theories and Practices, 5(1), 81–108.
  • Busri, H., Irawati, R., & Nawawi, M. (2016). Pemanfaatan cross cultural understanding (Pemahaman lintas budaya) dalam bahan ajar nusus adabiyyah (analisis teks sastra) [Utilization of cross cultural understanding in nusus adabiyyah teaching materials (Literary text analysis)]. Jurnal Penelitian PendidikanA & A (Semarang), 33(1), 35–58.
  • Candler, A. C., & Hildreth, B. L. (2015). Characteristics of language disorders in learning disabled students. Intervention in School and Clinic, 25(3), 333–343.
  • Chen, C., & Du, X. (2022). Teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language through intercultural online collaborative projects. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 31(2), 123–135.
  • Cohen, D., & Crabtree, B. (2006). Qualitative research guidelines project. Qualres.
  • Cunnings, I. (2012). An overview of mixed-effects statistical models for second language researchers. Second Language Research, 28(3), 369–382.
  • Daring, B. (2023). Bahasa Indonesia bagi penutur asing dalam jaringan [Indonesian for foreign speakers online.]. Agency for Language Development and Cultivation.
  • Darmawansah, D., Lin, C.-J., & Hwang, G.-J. (2022). Empowering the collective reflection-based argumentation mapping strategy to enhance students’ argumentative speaking. Computers & Education, 184, 104516.
  • Delpa, D., & Afrinda, P. D. (2022). Student speaking actions in understanding the meaning of english communication homopons in the lecture room. Journal of Pragmatics and Discourse Research, 2(1), 10–19.
  • DiCicco-Bloom, B., & Crabtree, B. F. (2006). The qualitative research interview. Medical Education, 40(4), 314–321.
  • Dirgantoro, A. (2016). Implementation of multicultural education ineducationalperspective for cross cultural psychologystudy in Indonesia. Proceedings International Seminar FoE (Faculty of Education), 96–108.
  • Faisol, Y., Fitriyah, R., Fakhrurrazy, R., & Fauzy, R. (2022). Pragmatic cyber analysis in the middle east conflict news text views. Journal of Pragmatics and Discourse Research, 2(1), 20–30.
  • Fong, C. S., Dewitt, D., & Leng, C. H. (2018). The analysis of cultural and intercultural elements in mandarin as a foreign language textbooks from selected Malaysian public higher education institutions. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 6(1), 66–90.
  • Fossey, E., Harvey, C., Mcdermott, F., & Davidson, L. (2002). Understanding and evaluating qualitative research. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36.
  • Gibson, C. (1998). Semi‐structured and unstructured interviewing: a comparison of methodologies in research with patients following discharge from an acute psychiatric hospital. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 5, 469–477.
  • Goudousaki, M. (2006). Teaching reading comprehension to ESL / EFL learners. Journal of Language and Learning, 5(1), 379–380.
  • Gumono, G. (2022). Teacher-made tests on Bahasa Indonesia subject for school examinations in public vocational high school of Bengkulu province. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literature, 7(1), 136–148.
  • Hardini, T. I., Setyarini, S., & Harto, S. (2008). Unique experiences and best practices of bipa teachers in Victorian schools: A case study in selecting contextual teaching materials [Paper presentation]. Konferensi Internasional Pengajaran Bahasa Indonesia Bagi Penutur Asing (KIPBIPA) XI, Banten, Selasa malam.
  • Hart, L. C., Smith, S. Z., Swars, S. L., & Smith, M. E. (2009). An examination of research methods in mathematics education (1995-2005). Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(1), 26–41.
  • Hilton, H. (2011). Applying cognitive linguistics to second language learning and teaching. System, 39(1), 117–118).
  • Inderasari, E., & Agustina, T. (2017). Pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia pada mahasiswa asing dalam program Bipa IAIN Surakarta [Indonesian language learning for foreign students in the Bipa IAIN Surakarta program.]. Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Dan Sastra Indonesia, 6(2), 6–14.
  • Isnaniah, S., & Islahuddin, A. (2020). Management of Indonesian language learning for foreign speakers (BIPA) at Islamic religious higher education institutions (PTKI) in Indonesia and Thailand. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 9(1), 1–28.
  • Kallio, H., Pietilä, A. M., Johnson, M., & Kangasniemi, M. (2016). Systematic methodological review: developing a framework for a qualitative semi-structured interview guide. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 72(12), 2954–2965.
  • Khaerunnisa, K., & Mutiarani, M. (2018, August). Multicultural education-based BIPA Learning implementation: A critical study of facing industrial revolution [Paper prsentation]. 3rd Porgressive and Fun Education International Conference, Surabay, Indonesia.
  • Khromchenko, O., & Shutilo, I. (2021). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Pedagogy and Education, 2(5), 23-24.
  • Koeswanti, H. D. (2019). Multicultural education management in Indonesian Language learning for foreign students in Indonesia. Jurnal Pendidikan Dan Pengajaran, 52(2), 93–101.
  • Laksono, P. T., & Ismiatun, F. (2023). Adapting to a hard situation: BIPA teachers’ successful strategies for teaching local culture during the COVID-19 Pandemic. REiLA: Journal of Research and Innovation in Language, 5(1), 63–76.
  • Lin Sihong, V. S. D. (2018). Bahan ajar pembelajaraan bahasa indonesia: analisis pembelajaran bipa dengan pendekatan integratif dalam konteks kecakapan hidup [Indonesian language learning teaching materials: analysis of bipa learning with an integrative approach in the context of life skills.]. Riksa Bahasa, 12, 875-876.
  • Lina Tiawati, R. (2018). Indonesian Language learning planning for foreigners (bipa) for beginners level. Gramatika STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat, 4(2), A2732.
  • Lina Tiawati R., R. (2015). Bahasa Indonesia di thailand menjadi media diplomasi kebahasaan dan budayadi asean melalui pengajaran bipa [Indonesian in Thailand has become a medium for linguistic and cultural diplomacy in ASEAN through Bipa teaching.]. Gramatika STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat, 1(1), A1159.
  • Maharani, T., & Astuti, E. S. (2018). Pemerolehan bahasa kedua dan pengajaran bahasa dalam pembelajaran BIPA [Second language acquisition and language teaching in BIPA learning]. Jurnal Bahasa Lingua Scientia, 10(1), 121–142.
  • Maharany, E. R. (2018). Kebutuhan pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia bagi penutur asing Thailand [The need for learning Indonesian for foreign Thai speakers]. Ed-Humanistics: Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 3(2), 348–354.
  • Maryelliwati, Rahmad, H. A., & Charaka, K. P. (2022). Minangkabau traditional theater in the framework of discourse studies. Journal of Pragmatics and Discourse Research, 2(1), 31–38.
  • Megawati, C. (2014). Pengembangan media pembelajaran BIPA tingkat menengah melalui e-book interaktif di program incountry Universitas Negeri Malang Tahun [Development of medium level BIPA learning media through interactive e-books in the Malang State University incountry program]. Nosi, 2(1), 62–70.
  • Mueller, A. E., & Segal, D. L. (2015). Structured versus Semistructured versus Unstructured Interviews. The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology, 1–7.
  • Mulyaningsih, I., Rahmat, W., Maknun, D., & Firdaus, W. (2022). How competence of production, attention, retention, motivation, and innovation can improve students’ scientific writing skills. International Journal of Language Education, 6(4), 368–385.
  • Ningsih, S. (2020). Persepsi mahasiswa terhadap pembelajaran daring pada masa pandemi Covid-19 [Student perceptions of online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic]. Jurnal Inovasi Dan Teknologi Pembelajaran): Kajian Dan Riset Dalam Teknologi Pembelajaran, 7(2), 124–132.
  • Nugraheni, A. S., Lestari, S., Husain, A. P., & Susanto, E. (2022). Teaching design and Indonesian language materials at universities of Thailand and Manila, Philippines, based on local wisdom in bipa learning. Jurnal Gramatika: Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Bahasa Dan Sastra Indonesia, 8(2), 154–171.
  • Ottman, O., Rahmad, H. A., & Yuhendri, R. (2023). Healthy snacks : multimodal critical discourse analysis of traditional food brand corporate storytelling. Journal of Pragmatics and Discourse Research, 3(1), 19–27.
  • Oyserman, D. (2016). What does a priming perspective reveal about culture: culture-as-situated cognition. Current Opinion in Psychology, 12, 94–99.
  • Pavlova, Pulekha, I., Vtorushina, Y., Baryshnikova, I., & Emets, T. (2022). Development of the educational strategies in foreign language communication based on the linguocultural reflection. International Journal of Instruction, 15(2), 97–118.
  • Pollock, T. (2019). The difference between structured, unstructured & semi-structured interviews. Oliver Parks Consulting LLC.
  • Prasetiyo, A. (2018). Pengembangan Bahan Ajar BIPA Bermuatan Budaya Jawa bagi penutur asing tingkat Pemula [Development of BIPA teaching materials containing Javanese culture for beginner level foreign speakers.]. Lingua Jurnal Bahasa Dan Sastra, 11(1), 8927.
  • Pujo Leksono, R., & Tiawati, R. L. (2020). Thai student online responses to native speaker toward Indonesian language learning for foreign speakers course. Jurnal Gramatika: Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Bahasa Dan Sastra Indonesia, 6(2), 272–283.
  • Putra, A. A., Rahmat, W., & Tatalia, R. G. (2021). The language of narcissistic tendencies in youtube users a psycopragmatic analysis. Journal of Pragmatics and Discourse Research, 2(2), 54–63.
  • Putria, H., Maula, L. H., & Uswatun, D. A. (2020). Analisis proses pembelajaran dalam jaringan (daring) masa pandemi covid- 19 pada guru sekolah dasar [Analysis of the online learning process during the Covid-19 pandemic among elementary school teachers]. Jurnal Basicedu, 4(4), 861–870.
  • Rachman, I. F., . A., & . S. (2019). Cultural issues in indonesian language learning for foreign speakers. International Journal of Educational Research Review, 1993, 454–460.
  • Rahmat, W., Fitriyah, R., Zulfa, Z., Riza, A., Afrinda, P. D., Fitri, R., & Pebriani, Y. (2023). Learning foreign language towards its media and identity to motivate student ’ s personal growth. Studies in Media and Communication, 11(7), 197–207.
  • Rahmat, W., Lateh, N. H. M., & Kurniawan, Y. (2022). How do the women control their language facing certain condition ? A perspective of psychopragmatics. International Journal of Language Education, 6(1), 36–45.
  • Rahmat, W., Putra, L. D., & Fitriyah, R. (2023). How do the ethnicity minangkabau male express their masculinity in language : a identity point of view. Culture & Psychology. Advance online publication.
  • Rahmat, W., Revita, I., & Fitriyah, R. (2019). Psychopragmatic analysis in language learning and teaching processes. Curricula: Journal of Teaching and Learning, 4(2), 92-100.
  • Rahmat, W., Tiawati, R. L., Kemal, E., Tatalia, R. G., Azri, H., & Wulandari, Y. (2023). How do the young people picture out their use , activeness , and connectivity on social media ? a discourse analysis approach. Journal of Communication Inquiry. Advance Online Publication.
  • Rahmawati D.R. (2019). Pembelajaran bahasa berbasis sosiokultural [Socioculturally based language learning]. PENTAS, 5(1), 9–14.
  • Riazi, A. M., & Candlin, C. N. (2014). Mixed-methods research in language teaching and learning: Opportunities, issues and challenges. Language Teaching, 47(2), 135–173.
  • Richards, J. (2006). Communicative language teaching today. Cambridge University Press.
  • Saddhono, K. (2015). Integrating culture in Indonesian language learning for foreign speakers at Indonesian universities. Journal of Language and Literature, 6(2), 2–7.
  • Sariningsih, N. (2017). An anlysis of culture shock of BIPA students in UPT bahasa. Undiksha, 5(2), 1-8.
  • Susanto, G. (2007). Pengembangan bahan ajar bipa berdasarkan kesalahan bahasa Indonesia pembelajar asing [Development of bipa teaching materials based on foreign learners' Indonesian language errors]. Bahasa Dan Seni, 35(2), 231–239.
  • Suyitno, I. (2007). Pengembangan bahan ajar bahasa Indonesia untuk penutur asing (bipa) berdasarkan hasil analisis kebutuhan belajar [Development of Indonesian language teaching materials for foreign speakers (bipa) based on the results of learning needs analysis]. Wacana, Journal of the Humanities of Indonesia, 9(1), Article 5.
  • Taftiawati, M. (2014). Strategi komunikasi pembelajaran bipa upi asal korea selatan dalam pembelajaran bipa tingkat dasar [Bipa Upi learning communication strategy from South Korea in elementary level Bipa learning]. Pembelajaran BIPA, 1(1), 1–8.
  • Tiawati, R. L., Rahmat, W., Kemal, E., & Chen, W. (2022). The importance of guidance in understanding cultural discourse in thinking and speaking for foreign students in BIPA program. Journal of Pragmatics and Discourse Research, 2(1), 39–47.
  • Tokyo​, I. E. (2023). APPBIPA annual seminar 2023 promotes “ indonesian wave ” to spread awareness about the indonesian language in Japan. Ministry of Foreign Afairs Republic of Indonesia.
  • Trihardini, A., Wikarti, A. R., & Andriani, S. (2019). Pemahaman lintas budaya bagi pendidik bahasa mandarin [Cross-cultural understanding for Mandarin language educators]. Jurnal Cakrawala Mandarin, 2(2), 28.
  • Ulugbek, J. (2020). Individual psychological characteristics of students in teaching foreign language sciences. Journal of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, 1(1), 38-42.
  • Wardani, N. E., & Ulya, C. (2019). The reseptive and productive learning models based on folktales for learning Indonesian as a foreign language. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1339, 012073.
  • Wincana, G., Rahmat, W., & Tatalia, R. G. (2022). Linguistic tendencies of anorexia nervosa on social media users. Journal of Pragmatics and Discourse Research, 2(1), 1–9.
  • Yendra, Y., Satria, W., Rahmat, W., Kemal, E., Kusumaningsih, D., Sudiyana, B., Miji Lestari, P., Susanti, R., Agung Ayu Dian Andriyani, A., Susylowati, E., Budi San-toso, A., Bambang Putut Setiyadi, D., Yulianti, W., Widhayani, A., Nur Kholidah, N., Saddhono, K., & PGRI Sumatera Barat, S. (2018). Introduction blended learning designs on introduction to linguistics at West Indonesian. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(3), 310–313.
  • Yusri, R., Muspardi, M., Kemal, E., & Rahmat, W. (2019). Effectiveness of national qualification framework Indonesia based curriculum and higher education national standard behaviour assesment rubric. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1157(4), 042129.
  • Zafar, S., Sandhu, S. Z., & Khan, Z. A. (2013). A critical analysis of “developing intercultural competence in the language classroom” by Bennett, Bennett and Allen. World Applied Sciences Journal, 21(4), 565–571.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.