High school students’ conceptions about learning and instruction: A metaphor analysis
Gokhan Bas 1 * , Zafer Savas Kıvılcım 2
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1 Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, Turkey
2 Ministry of National Education, Turkey
* Corresponding Author


In this study, we aimed to investigate the metaphorical conceptions of high school students in Turkey about “learning” and “instruction”. For the selection of the participants, stratified sampling, one of the purposive sampling methods, was adopted. The participating students completed the prompts –which were also the data collection instruments– “learning is like… because…” and “instruction is like… because…” to indicate their conceptualizations about learning and instruction. The data were analyzed using content analysis technique. In order to ensure the validity of the study, the data analysis process was described in detail, the findings were presented without any comment on, and an expert’s opinion was received to confirm whether metaphors under conceptual categories were represented in conceptual category. To ensure the reliability of the findings, a colleague was asked to match sample metaphorical images with the conceptual categories. The results of the study showed that high school students developed a total of 71 valid metaphors clustered under totally nine (five for learning theme and four for instruction theme) main conceptual categories.



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