Characteristics of junior high school teachers' beliefs in developing students' numeracy skills through ethnomathematics-based numeracy learning
Erni Puji Astuti 1 2 * , Ariyadi Wijaya 1, Farida Hanum 1
More Detail
1 Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2 Universitas Muhammadiyah Purworejo, Purworejo, Indonesia
* Corresponding Author


The teachers’ beliefs in ethnomathematics-based numeracy learning are a crucial element to be able to develop students' numeracy skills. The teachers’ beliefs in developing students' numeracy skills through ethnomathematics-based numeracy learning is a teacher's personal view about certain practices that are considered correct, which include four dimensions. The first dimension is the teachers’ beliefs about numeracy. The second dimension is teachers’ beliefs about the role of ethnomathematics in learning numeracy. The third dimension is teachers’ beliefs about ethnomathematics-based numeracy teaching. The fourth dimension is teachers’ beliefs about ethnomathematics-based numeracy learning. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of teachers' beliefs in developing students' numeracy skills through ethnomathematics-based numeracy learning. The teacher's response was acquired through the completion of a questionnaire. The findings indicated that most teachers believed fostering students' numeracy skills could be achieved by implementing ethnomathematics-based numeracy learning inside the semi-realistic-mechanistic (SRM) categories. Further analysis reveals that more extended teaching experience may mean something other than that a teacher has a realistically oriented outlook. Teachers with teaching experience of fewer than five years (new teachers) and 5 to 10 years (junior teachers’) have a semi-realistic-mechanistic (SRM) view. Most teachers with more than 10 to 15 years (semi-senior-teachers) of teaching experience have a dominant realistic (DR) idea. In contrast, teachers with more than 15 years (senior teachers) of teaching experience have a semi-realistic-mechanistic (SRM) view and a dominant realistic (DR) view. Teachers’ positive beliefs will likely improve students' numeracy skills in general and based on teaching experience in the dominant realistic (DR) and realistic (R) categories regarding ethnomathematics-based numeracy learning.  



  • Aiken, L. R. (1985). Three coefficients for analyzing the reliability and validity of ratings. Educational and Psychologocal Measurement, 45(1), 131-142.
  • Aljaberi, N. M., & Gheith, E. (2018). In-service mathematics teachers’ beliefs about teaching, learning, and nature of mathematics and their mathematics teaching practices. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(5), 156-173.
  • Amit, M., & Abu Qouder, F. (2017). Weaving culture and mathematics in the classroom: The case of Bedouin ethnomathematics. In M. Rosa, L. Shirley, M. Gavarrete, W. V. Alangui (Eds.), Ethnomathematics and its diverse approaches for mathematics education (pp. 23–50). Springer.
  • Astuti, E. P., Purwoko, R. Y., & Sintiya, M. W. (2019). Form of ethnomatematics in Adipurwo batik in learning of number patterns. Journal of Mathematics Science and Education, 1(2), 1-16.
  • Baeten, M., Kyndt, E., Struyven, K., & Dochy, F. (2010). Using student-centred learning environments to stimulate deep approaches to learning: Factors encouraging or discouraging their effectiveness. Educational Research Review, 5(3), 243-260.
  • Baker, D., Street, B., & Tomlin, A. (2003). Mathematics as social: Understanding relationships between home and school numeracy practices. For the Learning of Mathematics, 23(3), 11-15.
  • Bereczki, E. O., & Kárpáti, A. (2018). Teachers’ beliefs about creativity and its nurture: A systematic review of the recent research literature. Educational Research Review, 23(1), 25-56.
  • Bobis, J., Way, J., Anderson, J., & Martin, A. J. (2016). Challenging teacher beliefs about student engagement in mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 19(1), 33-55.
  • Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
  • Cockcroft, W. H. (1982). Mathematics counts. Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
  • D’Ambrosio, U. (2001). What is ethnomathematics and how can it help children in schools? Teaching Children Mathematics, 7(6), 308-310.
  • De Corte, E., Mason, L., Depaepe, F., & Verschaffel, L. (2011). Self-regulation of mathematical knowledge and skills. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. Routledge.
  • Diamond, J. M. (2019). Teachers’ beliefs about students’ transfer of learning. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 22(5), 459-487.
  • Dina, Z. H., Ikhsan, M., & Hajidin, H. (2019). The improvement of communication and mathematical disposition abilities through discovery learning model in junior high school. Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education, 4(1), 11-22.
  • Ernest, P. (2006). The knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of the mathematics teacher: A model. Journal of Education for Teaching, 15(1), 13-33.
  • Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1-4.
  • Fadel, C. (2008). 21st century skills: How can you prepare students for the new global economy? OECD/CERI.
  • Forgasz, H. J., & Hall, J. (2019). Learning about numeracy: The impact of a compulsory unit on pre-service teachers' understandings and beliefs. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 44(2), 15-33.
  • Geary, D. C., Hoard, M. K., Nugent, L., & Bailey, D. H. (2013). Adolescents’ functional numeracy is predicted by their school entry number system knowledge. PLoS ONE, 8(1), e54651.
  • Getenet, S. T. (2022). Teachers’ knowledge framework for designing numeracy rich tasks across non-mathematics curriculum areas. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology, 10(3), 663-680.
  • Godfrey, Z., & Mtebe, J. (2018). Redesigning local games to stimulate pupils' interest in learning numeracy in Tanzania. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 14(3), 17-37.
  • Goos, M. Geiger, V., & Dole, S. (2014). Transforming professional practice in numeracy teaching. In Transforming Mathematics Instruction, 81–102.
  • Han, W., Susanto, D., Dewayani, S., Pandora, P., Hanifah, N., Miftahussururi, Nento, M. N., & Akbari, Q. S. (2017). Numeracy literacy support materials. Ministry of Education and Culture.
  • Hidayat, W., Rohaeti, E. E., Ginanjar, A., & Putri, R. I. I. (2022). An ePub learning module and students’ mathematical reasoning ability: A development study. Journal on Mathematics Education, 13(1), 103–118.
  • Jabar, A., Gazali, Rahmita, Y., Ningrum, A. A., Atsnan, M. F., & Prahmana, R. C. I. (2022). Ethnomathematical exploration on traditional game bahasinan in Gunung Makmur Village the Regency of Tanah Laut. Mathematics Teaching Research Journal, 14(5), 107-127.
  • Jaelani, A., Putri, R. I. I., & Hartono, Y. (2013). Students' strategies of measuring time using traditional gasing game in third grade of primary school. Journal on Mathematics Education, 4(1), 29-40.
  • Lechner, C. M., Gauly, B., Miyamoto, A., & Wicht, A. (2021). Stability and change in adults' literacy and numeracy skills: Evidence from two large-scale panel studies. Personality and Individual Differences, 180, 110990.
  • Li, X., Zhou, W., Hwang, S., & Cai, J. (2022). Learning to teach mathematics through problem posing: Teachers’ beliefs and their instructional practices. International Journal of Educational Research, 115, 102038.
  • Minihan, E., Begley, A., Martin, A., Dunleavy, M., Gavin, B., & McNicholas, F. (2022). Examining COVID-19 related occupational stress in teachers in Ireland through a qualitative study using a thematic analysis approach. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 3, 100183.
  • Muhtadi, D., Sukirwan, Warsito, & Prahmana, R. C. I. (2017). Sundanese ethnomathematics: mathematical activities in estimating, measuring, and making patterns. Journal on Mathematics Education, 8(2), 185-198.
  • Muhtarom, Juniati, D., & Siswono, T. Y. E. (2019). Examining prospective teachers’ belief and pedagogical content knowledge towards teaching practice in mathematics class: A case study. Journal on Mathematics Education, 10(2), 185-202.
  • Murugaiah, K. (2023). “We make do”: Experiences and beliefs of teachers working in conflict-affected Niger. International Journal of Educational Development, 100, 102808.
  • Nugraheni, L. P., & Marsigit. (2021). Realistic mathematics education: an approach to improve problem solving ability in primary school. Journal of Education and Learning, 15(4), 511-518.
  • OECD. (2018). PISA for development assessment and analytical framework: Reading, mathematics, and science. Author.
  • OECD. (2018). PISA 2021 mathematics framework. Author.
  • Owens, K. (2014). The impact of a teacher education culture-based project on identity as a mathematically thinking teacher. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 42(2), 186-207.
  • Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Sage Journals, 62(3), 307-332.
  • Palengka, I., Juniati, D., & Abadi. (2022). Mathematical reasoning of prospective mathematics teachers in solving problems based on working memory capacity differences. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 18(12), em2193.
  • Peker, M., & Ulu, M. (2018). The effect of pre-service mathematics teachers' beliefs about mathematics teaching-learning on their mathematics teaching anxiety. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 249-264.
  • Prahmana, R. C. I., Zulkardi, & Hartono, Y. (2012). Learning multiplication using Indonesian traditional game in third grade. Journal on Mathematics Education, 3(2), 115-132.
  • Quigley, M. T. (2021). Concrete materials in primary classrooms: Teachers' beliefs and practices about how and why they are used. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 23(2), 59-78.
  • Risdiyanti, I., & Prahmana, R. C. I. (2018). Ethnomathematics: Explorations in Javanese traditional games. Journal of Medives: Journal of Mathematics Education IKIP Veteran Semarang, 2(1), 1-11.
  • Rosa, M., & Orey, D. C. (2015). A trivium curriculum for mathematics based on literacy, matheracy, and technoracy: an ethnomathematics perspective. ZDM-The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 47, 587-598.
  • Russo, J., Bobis, J., Downton, A., Hughes, S., Livy, S., McCormick, M., & Sullivan, P. (2020). Elementary teachers’ beliefs on the role of struggle in the mathematics classroom. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 58, 100774.
  • Schoen, R. C., LaVenia, M., & Ozsoy, G. (2019). Teacher beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning: Identifying and clarifying three constructs. Cogent Education, 6(1), 1-29.
  • Shah, R. K. (2021). Teachers’ belief: an overview. International Journal of Creative Research Thoughts, 9(1), 3890-3909.
  • Supiyati, S., Hanum, F., & Jailani. (2019). Ethnomathematics in Sasaknese architecture. Journal on Mathematics Education, 10(1), 47-58.
  • Supriadi. (2022). Elementary school student reflection: Didactical design analysis on integer and fraction operations on mathematical concepts with sundanese ethnomathematics learning. Pegem Journal of Education and Instruction, 12(4), 192-199.
  • Susanto, D., Sihombing, S., Radjawane, M. M., & Wardani, A. K. (2021). Learning inspiration that strengthens literacy. Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia.
  • Tanujaya, B., Mumu, J., & Margono, G. (2017). The relationship between higher order thinking skills and academic performance of student in mathematics instruction. International Education Studies, 10(11), 78-85.
  • Thanheiser, E., & Melhuish, K. (2023). Teaching routines and student-centered mathematics instruction: The essential role of conferring to understand student thinking and reasoning. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 70, 101032.
  • van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M. (2010). Reform under attack-forty years of working on better mathematics education thrown on the scrapheap? No way! In L. Sparrow, B. Kissane, & C. Hurst (Eds.), Shaping the future of mathematics education: Proceedings of the 33rd annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (pp.1-25). MERGA.
  • Wijaya, A. (2008). Design research in mathematics education: Indonesian traditional games as means to support second graders’ learning of linear measurement [Unpublished Master’s Thesis]. Utrecht University, Utrecht.
  • Wijaya, A., Doorman, M., & Keijze, R. (2011). Emergent modelling: from traditional Indonesian games to a standard unit of measurement. Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 34(2), 149-173.
  • Wijaya, A., van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., & Doorman, M. (2015). Teachers’ teaching practices and beliefs regarding context-based tasks and their relation with students’ difficulties in solving these tasks. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 27, 637–662.
  • Wijaya, A., van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, M., & Doorman, M., & Veldhuis, M. (2018). Opportunity-to-learn to solve context-based mathematics tasks and students’ performance in solving these tasks-lessons from Indonesia. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 14(10), em1598.
  • Wijaya, A., & Dewayani, S. (2021). Minimum competency assessment framework. Ministry of Education and Culture.
  • Xie, S., & Cai, J. (2021). Teachers’ beliefs about mathematics, learning, teaching, students, and teachers: perspectives from Chinese high school in-service mathematics teachers. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 19(4), 747–769.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.