Assessing chemistry teachers’ needs and expectations from integrated STEM education professional developments
Elif Selcan Oztay 1 * , Sevgi Aydin Gunbatar 2, Betul Ekiz Kiran 3
More Detail
1 Department of Elementary Education, Van Yuzuncu Yil University, Turkey
2 Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Van Yuzuncu Yil University, Turkey
3 Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Tokat Gaziosmanpasa University, Turkey
* Corresponding Author


Integrated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education has gained popularity worldwide. With the twenty-first century's different economic, political, and societal needs, nations intend to train citizens as better problem solvers. The current integrated STEM movement has influenced science curriculum documents and science teaching and learning to address those issues. To attain the goals of recent reform, teachers' understanding of the essential characteristics of integrated STEM education and learning implementation of the STEM activities with engineering design challenges are required. The related literature has stated that teachers' voices should be heard to address their needs through professional development (PD). In light of that point, in this needs assessment study, we intended to determine in-service chemistry teachers' expectations from and needs for implementing integrated STEM education. Data were collected from 112 chemistry teachers via open-ended questions. Results showed that most of the teachers stated that they expect to experience integrated STEM activities with their active participation through PDs. Additionally, the participants highlighted their expectations from a PD design to learn what integrated STEM education is and its essential features. Learning how to integrate STEM activities into lessons, developing integrated STEM lesson plans, and interdisciplinary chemistry teaching were other participants' expectations. Examples of participants' needs were learning implementation of integrated STEM education, integrating chemistry with STEM disciplines, finding chemistry-based STEM activities, and learning engineering design process and product. In order to reach PDs' goals set, first of all, teachers' needs for and expectations from the PDs should be determined regarding the STEM approach and then the PDs in which the teachers take a role as active participants should be organized.



  • Apedoe, X. S., Reynolds, B., Ellefson, M. R., & Schunn, C. D. (2008). Bringing engineering de­sign into high school science classrooms: the heating/cooling unit. Journal of Science Edu­cation and Technology, 17(5), 454–465.
  • Aydin-Gunbatar, S., Tarkin-Celikkiran, A., Kutucu, E. S., & Ekiz-Kiran, B. (2018). The influence of a design-based elective STEM course on pre-service chemistry teachers’ content knowledge, STEM conceptions, and engineering views. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 19(3), 954-972.
  • Aydın-Günbatar, S. (2018). Designing a process to prevent apple’s browning: A STEM activity. Journal of Inquiry Based Activities, 8(2), 99-110.
  • Banilower, E. R., Heck, D. J., & Weiss, I. R. (2007). Can professional development make the vision of the standards a reality? The impact of the national science foundation’s local systemic change through teacher enhancement initiative. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44, 375–395.
  • Barbazette, J. (2006). Training Needs Assessment: Methods, Tools, and Techniques. Pfeiffer Publishing.
  • Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain. Educational Researcher, 33(8), 3-15.
  • Brophy, S., Klein, S., Portsmore, M., & Rogers, C. (2008). Advancing engineering education in P-12 classrooms. Journal of Engineering Education, 97, 369–387.
  • Bybee, R. W. (2010). What is STEM education?. Science, 329, 996.
  • Capobianco, B. M., & Rupp, M. (2014). STEM teachers' planned and enacted attempts at implementing engineering design‐based instruction. School Science and Mathematics, 114(6), 258-270.
  • Dare, E. A., Ring-Whalen, E. A., & Roehrig, G. H. (2019). Creating a continuum of STEM models: Exploring how K-12 science teachers conceptualize STEM education. International Journal of Science Education, 41(12), 1701-1720.
  • Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher, 38(3), 181-199.
  • Ekiz-Kiran, B., Aydin-Gunbatar, S. (2021). Analysis of engineering elements of K-12 science standards in seven countries engaged in STEM education reform. Science & Education, 30, 849-882.
  • El Nagdi, M., Leammukda, F., & Roehrig, G. (2018). Developing identities of STEM teachers at emerging STEM schools. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(1), 1-13.
  • Fraenkel J. R. & Wallen N. E., (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. McGraw-Hill.
  • Friedrichsen, P. J., Linke, N., & Barnett, E. (2016). Biology teachers' professional development needs for teaching evolution. Science Educator, 25(1), 51-61.
  • Gökbayrak, S., & Karışan, D. (2017). An Investigation of the Effects of STEM based Activities on Preservice science Teacher’s Science Process Skills. Western Anatolia Journal of Educational Sciences, 8(2), 63-84.
  • Guzey, S. S., Tank, K., Wang, H. H., Roehrig, G., & Moore, T. (2014). A high‐quality professional development for teachers of grades 3–6 for implementing engineering into classrooms. School Science and Mathematics, 114(3), 139-149.
  • Johnson, C. C. (2013). Conceptualizing integrated STEM education. School Science and Mathematics, 113(8), 367–368.
  • Kelley, T. R. & Knowles, J. G. (2016). A conceptual framework for integrated STEM education. International Journal of STEM Education, 3(11), 1-11.
  • Lau, M., & Multani, S. (2018). Engineering STEM teacher learning: Using a museum-based field experience to foster STEM teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge for engineering. In Uzzo, S. M., Graves, S. B., Shay, E., Harford, M., & Thompson, R. (Eds.), Pedagogical content knowledge in STEM: Research to practice (pp. 195-213). Springer.
  • Loucks‐Horsley, S., Love, N., Stiles, K., Mundry, S., & Hewson, P. (2010). Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics. Corwin Press
  • Margot, K. C., & Kettler, T. (2019). Teachers’ perception of STEM integration and education: a systematic literature review. International Journal of STEM Education, 6(1), 1-16.
  • Mathis, C. A., Siverling, E. A., Moore, T. J., Douglas, K. A., & Guzey, S. S. (2018). Supporting engineering design ideas with science and mathematics: A case study of middle school life science students. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology (IJEMST), 6(4), 424-442.
  • Moore, T., Stohlmann, M., Wang, H., Tank, K., Glancy, A., & Roehrig, G. (2014). Implementation and integration of engineering in K-12 STEM education. In S. Purzer, J. Strobel, & M. Cardella (Eds.), Engineering in Pre-College Settings: Synthesizing Research, Policy, and Practices (pp. 35–60). Purdue University Press.
  • Moore, T. J., Tank, K. M., Glancy, A. W., & Kersten, J. A. (2015). NGSS and the landscape of engineering in K‐12 state science standards. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 52(3), 296-318.
  • NGSS Lead States. (2013). Next generation science standards: For states, by states. The National Academies Press.
  • Owens, D. C., Sadler, T. D., Murakami, C. D., & Tsai, C. L. (2018). Teachers’ views on and preferences for meeting their professional development needs in STEM. School Science and Mathematics, 118(8), 370-384.
  • Paechter, C. (1996). What do we mean by professional development? Research in PostCompulsory Education, 1(3), 345-355.
  • Park Rogers, M., Abell, S., Lannin, J., Wang, C. Y., Musikul, K., Barker, D., & Dingman, S. (2007). Effective professional development in science and mathematics education: Teachers’ and facilitators’ views. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 5, 507–532.
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Sage.
  • Peterman, K., Daugherty, J. L., Custer, R., & Ross, J. (2017). Analysing the integration of engineering in science lessons with the Engineering-Infused Lesson Rubric. International Journal of Science Education, 39 (14), 1913-1931.
  • Putnam, R. T., & Borko, H. (1997). Teacher learning: Implications of the new view of cognition. In B. J. Biddle, T. L. Good, & I. F. Goodson (Eds.), The international handbook of teachers and teaching (pp. 1223-1296). Kluwer.
  • Qablan, A. (2021). Assessing teachers education and professional development needs to implement stem after participating in an intensive summer professional development program. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations and Research, 22(2), 75-79.
  • Roehrig, G. H., Moore, T. J., Wang, H. H., & Park, M. S. (2012). Is adding the E enough? Investigating the impact of K‐12 engineering standards on the implementation of STEM integration. School Science and Mathematics, 112(1), 31-44.
  • Shernoff D. J., Sinha S., Bressler D. M., & Ginsburg L., (2017). Assessing teacher education and professional development needs for the implementation of integrated approaches to STEM education. International Journal of STEM Education, 4(13), 1–16, 0068-1
  • Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.
  • Stohlmann, M., Moore, T. J., & Roehrig, G. H. (2012). Considerations for teaching integrated STEM education. Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER), 2(1), 4.
  • Teo, T. W., & Ke, K. J. (2014). Challenges in STEM teaching: Implication for preservi­ce and inservice teacher education program. Theory into Practice, 53(1), 18–24.
  • Zhang, M., Parker, J., Koehler, M. J., & Eberhardt, J. (2015). Understanding inservice science teachers’ needs for professional development. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 26, 471–496.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.