Exploring curriculum literacy skills: An in-depth analysis through explanatory sequential design
Feyza Öner 1 * , İlker Cırık 2
More Detail
1 Kadir Has University, School of Foreign Languages, Türkiye
2 Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Türkiye
* Corresponding Author


The aim of this research is to determine the effect of curriculum literacy levels of primary school English teachers on the official and functional curriculum practices. In line with this purpose, an explanatory sequential design was used and qualitative data supplemented quantitative insights. The study was carried out in various primary schools on the European Side of Istanbul in the second semester of the 2021-2022 academic year. The participants of the study consisted of 98 English teachers for the quantitative part. For the qualitative part, six teachers were selected by the maximum variation sampling method. The quantitative data of the study were collected with the Curriculum Literacy Scale. Standard deviation, mean and independent groups t-test were used in the analysis of quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed using the descriptive analysis method through the In-Class Program Compatibility Observation Form. In the analysis of the data, a classification was made for the cognitive process and the knowledge dimensions of Bloom's revised taxonomy for the objectives. In the teaching process and evaluation elements, a comparison was made with the relevant items of the primary school English curriculum. Quantitative results show notably high curriculum literacy levels among primary school English teachers, particularly in reading. Qualitative findings reveal that highly curriculum-literate teachers are better aligned with the official curriculum, while lower literacy levels yield greater compatibility in learning experiences.  The study concludes that higher curriculum literacy corresponds to better curriculum alignment among teachers.



  • Akyıldız, S. (2020). A conceptual analysis of curriculum literacy concept: a study of scale development. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 19(73), 315-332. https://doi.org/10.17755/esosder.554205
  • An, F. (2020). An investigation of the cases of english teachers to ensure program alignment (Publication No. 616652) [Master's thesis, Gaziantep University]. Turkish Council of Higher Education Theses Center.
  • Arslan Çelik, F. M. (2020). An investigation of secondary school english teachers’ curriculum fidelity (Publication No. 646523) [Master's thesis, Hacettepe University]. Turkish Council of Higher Education Theses Center.
  • Aslan, S. (2019). An analysis of prospective teachers' curriculum literacy levels in terms of reading and writing. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7(4), 973-979. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2019.070408
  • Aslan, S., & Gürlen, E. (2019). Secondary school teachers’ level of curriculum literacy. Ahi Evran University Journal of Kırşehir Education Faculty, 20(1), 171-186. https://doi.org/10.29299/kefad.2018.20.01.006
  • Atuhurra, J., & Kaffenberger, M. (2022). Measuring education system coherence: Alignment of curriculum standards, examinations, and teacher instruction in Tanzania and Uganda. International Journal of Educational Development, 92(102598)1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2022.102598
  • Aykaç, N., & Ulubey, Ö. (2012). Pre-service teachers’ opinions about the application level of elementary school program. Ankara University Journal of Faculty of Educational Sciences, 45(1), 63-82.
  • Bateman, D., Taylor, S., Janik, E., & Logan, A. (2007). Curriculum coherence and student success. Pédagogie Collégiale, 22(5), 8-18.
  • Biggs, J. (2003). Aligning teaching and assessing to course objectives. Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: New Trends and Innovations, 2(4), 13-17.
  • Bolat, Y. (2017). Concept of curriculum literacy and curriculum literacy scale. Turkish Studies: International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 12(18), 121-138. https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.12103
  • Boncuk, A. (2021). Examination of the relationship between teachers ' program literacy and their commitment to the curriculum. The Anatolian Turkish Journal of Education, 3(1), 88-108.
  • Brent, G., & Diobilda, N. (1993). Effects of curriculum alignment versus direct instruction on urban children. Journal of Educational Research, 86(6), 333-338. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1993.9941226
  • Bütün, M., & Gültepe, T. (2016). Teachers’ views about implementation of the middle school mathematics curriculum. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 5(10), 80-89.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2020). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı [Manual of data analysis for social sciences]. Pegem.
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, E. K., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2020). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri. Pegem Akademi.
  • Caswell, H. L., & Campbell, D. S. (1935). Curriculum development. American Book Co.
  • Çetinkaya, S., & Tabak, S. (2019). Curriculum literacy efficiency of preservice teachers. Ondokuz Mayıs University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 38(1), 296-309.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2015). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Sage.
  • Demirel, Ö. (2020). Eğitimde program geliştirme [Curriculum development in education]. Pegem.
  • Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M., & Hansen, W. B. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: Implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research, 18(2), 237-256.
  • Ellis, A. K. (2004). Exemplars of curriculum theory. Taylor & Francis.
  • Erdem, C., & Eğmir, E. (2018). Prospective teachers’ levels of curriculum literacy. Afyon Kocatepe University Journal of Social Sciences, 20(2), 123-138.
  • Fer, S. (2019). Eğitimde program geliştirme: Kuramsal temellere bakış [Curriculum development in education: Overview of theoretical foundations]. Pegem.
  • Furtak, E. M., Ruiz-Primo, M. A., Shemwell, J. T., Ayala, C. C., Brandon, P. R., Shavelson, R. J., & Yin, Y. (2008). On the fidelity of implementing embedded formative assessments and its relation to student learning. Applied Measurement in Education, 21(4), 360-389. https://doi.org/10.1080/08957340802347852
  • Güneş, G., & Gökçek, T. (2013). Determination of preservice teachers’ mathematical literacy levels. Dicle University Journal of Ziya Gökalp Faculty of Education, 20, 70-79.
  • Gürsoy, E., Korkmaz, S. Ç., & Damar, A. E. (2013). Foreign language teaching within 4+4+4 education system in Turkey: Language teachers’ voice. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 53/A, 59-74.
  • Hardman, J., & A-Rahman, N. (2014). Teachers and the implementation of a new English curriculum in Malaysia. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 27(3), 260-277. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2014.980826
  • Hewitt, T. W. (2006). Understanding and shaping curriculum: What we teach and why. Sage.
  • Hunkins, F. P., & Ornstein, A. C. (2016). Curriculum: foundations, principles, and issues. Pearson.
  • Kahramanoğlu, R. (2019). A study on teachers' levels of curriculum literacy. Journal of International Social Research, 12(65), 827-840. https://doi.org/10.17719/jisr.2019.3495
  • Kara, K., Karakoç, Yıldırım, İ. & Bay, E. (2017). Examination of curriculum alignment in terms of theory and practice for the 8th grade mathematics teaching. Harran Education Journal, 2(1), 26-40. https://doi.org/10.22596/2017.0201.26.40
  • Kırkgöz, Y. (2008). A case study of teachers’ implementation of curriculum innovation in English language teaching in Turkish primary education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(7), 1859-1875.
  • Kırkgöz, Y. (2014). English language teaching in Turkey: Challenges for the 21st century. In G. Braine (Ed.), Teaching English to the world: History, curriculum, and practice (pp. 156-169). Routledge.
  • MoNE. (2017a). İlköğretim kurumları (İlkokullar ve Ortaokullar) İngilizce dersi (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. sınıflar) öğretim programı [English curriculum for primary and secondary schools (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ve 8. grades)]. Author.
  • MoNE. (2017b). Müfredatta yenileme ve değişiklik çalışmalarımız üzerine [On our studies on curriculum update and change]. Retrieved June 20, 2023 from http://ttkb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2017_07/18160003_basin_aciklamasi-program.pdf
  • Mihalic, S. (2002). The importance of implementation fidelity. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Youth, 4(4), 83-105.
  • Mitchell, F. M. (1999). All students can learn: Effects of curriculum alignment on the mathematics achievement of third-grade students [Paper presentation]. American Educational Research Association Annual Meetings, Montreal, Canada.
  • Öztürk, İ. H. (2012). Teacher’s role and autonomy in instructional planning: the case of secondary school history teachers with regard to the preparation and implementation of annual instructional plans. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(1), 271-299.
  • Phaeton, M. J., & Stears, M. (2017). Exploring the alignment of the intended and implemented curriculum through teachers' interpretation: A case study of a-level biology practical work. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 13(3), 723-740. https://doi.org/10.12973/eurasia.2017.00640a
  • Plano Clark, V. L., & Creswell, J. W. (2015). Understanding research a consumer’s guide. Pearson.
  • Rouffet, C., van Beuningen, C., & de Graaff, R. (2023). Constructive alignment in foreign language curricula: An exploration of teaching and assessment practices in Dutch secondary education. The Language Learning Journal, 51(3), 344-358. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2022.2025542
  • Saral, N. Ç. (2019). Exploring curriculum literacy level of English language teachers in Turkey (Publication No. 588832) [Master's thesis, Gazi University]. Turkish Council of Higher Education Theses Center.
  • Stabback, P. (2016). What makes a quality curriculum? Current and Critical Issues in Curriculum and
  • Learning, 2, 1-41.
  • Steiner, D., Magee, J., Jensen, B., & Button, J. (2018). Curriculum literacy in schools of education? The hole at the center of American teacher preparation. Retrieved April 15, 2023 from https://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/bitstream/handle/1774.2/62968/curriculum-literacy-in-schools-of-education-final-2911-1.pdf?sequence=1
  • Tanaş, R., & Tuncer, M. (2023). The relationship between teachers' curriculum literacy skills and their curriculum fidelity. Educational Reflections, 7(1), 13-21.
  • Uysal, E., & Yenilmez, K. (2011). The mathematics literacy level of eighth grade students. Eskişehir Osmangazi University Journal of Social Sciences, 12(2), 1-15.
  • Walker, D. F. (2003). Fundamentals of curriculum: Passion and professionalism. Routledge.
  • Wang, H., & Cheng, L. (2009). Factors affecting curriculum implementation. Linguistics Journal, 4(2), 135-166.
  • Yeşilpınar Uyar, M., & Eti, İ. (2023). Curriculum fidelity of Turkish preschool teachers in school-based practices. Education 3-13, 51(5), 820-835. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2021.2024867
  • Yıldırım, A. (2003). Instructional planning in a centralized school system: Lessons of a study among primary school teachers in Turkey. International Review of Education, 49(5), 525-543.
  • Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2011). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri [Qualitative research methods in social sciences]. Seçkin.
  • Yıldız, S. (2019). The relationship between perceptions of cognitive awareness of curriculum development and educational program literacy of prospective teachers. Social Sciences Journal (SSSJournal), 5(44), 5177-5191. https://doi.org/10.26449/sssj.1767
  • Yücel, E., Dimici, K., Yıldız, B., & Bümen, N. (2017). An analysis of the primary and secondary school english language curricula published over the last 15 years. Ege Journal of Education, 18(2), 702-737. https://doi.org/10.12984/egeefd.305922
  • Yüksel, S. (1998). Program geliştirme sürecine öğretmen katılımı [Teacher participation in the curriculum development process]. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 4(1), 99-106.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.