Electronic and manual mind mapping as mediating tools in the EFL writing process
Fatima A. Y. Al-Inbari 1, Baleigh Q. Al-Wasy 2 3, Hassan S. Mahdi 4 * , Haifa Al-Nofaie 5
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1 Department of English, College of Languages and Translation, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of English, College of Education and Applied Sciences, Sana’a University, Yemen
3 Department of English Language Skills, Common First Year, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of English, Faculty of Education, Hodeida University, Yemen
5 Department of Foreign Languages, College of Arts, Taif University, Saudi Arabia
* Corresponding Author


This study explores the impact of mind mapping on the writing of English as a Foreign Language [EFL] among Saudi learners and the bilateral effects of mind mapping and other writing processes. Little research has been devoted to the effect of electronic mind mapping as a mediating tool. Despite the cyclical nature of writing processes, the co-effect of mind mapping—electronic or manual (a pre-writing process)—and other writing processes have barely been examined in second language writing research. The study employed an experimental design with convenience sampling and qualitative data from interviews with the participants. The participants were divided into three groups according to the type of mind mapping used: manual, electronic, and control groups. The electronic and manual mind mapping groups outperformed the control group, and the electronic mind mapping group performed significantly better than the manual group. The findings revealed that both types of mind mapping had a positive impact on overall writing achievement. The participants’ responses to the interview questions clearly reflected that other writing processes changed the initial mind maps. It is hoped that the positive findings on the effects of mind mapping reported in this study will encourage EFL teachers to implement innovative min mapping techniques in order to raise EFL learners’ writing standards.  



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