Correlation between students’ perceived parental expectations and students’ academic engagement: The intermediary effect of academic self-efficacy
Yuting Wang 1 * , Fatimah B. Tambi 1
More Detail
1 Faculty of Education, Languages, Psychology and Music, SEGi University, Malaysia
* Corresponding Author


This article aims at exploring the correlation of student’ perceived parental expectations, academic self-efficacy and academic engagement based on the expectancy value theory. Specifically, this study innovatively integrated the parental expectations, academic self-efficacy and academic engagement from students’ perspectives into one model and explored the relationships between them. This study adopted quantitative questionnaire survey, including three instruments. This study adopted the Living up to Parental Expectation Inventory, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, and The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students to assess students’ perceived parental expectations, academic self-efficacy, and academic engagement.  Quantitative data was analyzed by descriptive statistical technique and referential statistical technique. Results showed that there is a moderate significant positive correlation between student’s perceived parental expectations and academic engagement, and similarly, there is a moderate significant positive correlation between academic self-efficacy and academic engagement. The results of hypothesis testing found that hypothesis on the direct significant effects of students’ perceived parental expectations on academic engagement has been rejected, indicating the mediation effects of academic self-efficacy.



  • Abaszadeh, H., Amani, M., & Pordanjani, T. R. (2024). The relationship between motivational-cognitive variables, academic self-efficacy of students mediated by parent’s educational expectations, parent-child interaction, and teacher-student interaction. Learning and Motivation, 86, 101983.
  • Adams, A. M., Wilson, H., Money, J., Palmer-Conn, S., & Fearn, J. (2020). Student engagement with feedback and attainment: the role of academic self-efficacy. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(2), 317-329.
  • Agonács, N., Matos, J. F., Bartalesi-Graf, D., & O’Steen, D. N. (2020). Are you ready? Self-determined learning readiness of language MOOC learners. Education and information technologies, 25(2), 1161-1179.
  • Al Mohazie, M. F. (2018). Reliability and validity of an arabic translation of academic self-efficacy scale (ASE) on students at king faisal university (Publication no. 1910) [Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University]. Digital Commons.
  • Almroth, M., László, K. D., Kosidou, K., & Galanti, M. R. (2020). Individual and familial factors predict formation and improvement of adolescents’ academic expectations: A longitudinal study in Sweden. Plos one, 15(2), e0229505.
  • Álvarez-Pérez, P. R., López-Aguilar, D., González-Morales, M. O., & Peña-Vázquez, R. (2021). Academic engagement and dropout intention in undergraduate university students. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 26(1), 108-125.
  • Anokye Effah, N. A., & Nkwantabisa, A. O. (2022). The influence of academic engagement on academic performance of university accounting students in Ghana. South African Journal of Accounting Research, 36(2), 105-122.
  • Azizi, Z., Rezai, A., Namaziandost, E., & Tilwani, S. A. (2022). The role of computer self-efficacy in high school students' e-learning anxiety: a mixed-methods study. Contemporary Educational Technology, 14(2), ep356.
  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191-215.
  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs.
  • Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American psychologist, 44(9), 1175-1184.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Freeman.
  • Baumeister, R. F., Maranges, H. M., & Vohs, K. D. (2018). Human self as information agent: Functioning in a social environment based on shared meanings. Review of General Psychology, 22(1), 36-47.
  • Benlahcene, A., Mohamed Abdelrahman, R., Ahmed, M., & Aboudahr, S. M. F. M. (2024). A pathway to engagement: the mediating role of self-efficacy between interpersonal relationships and academic engagement. Cogent Psychology, 11(1), 2330239.
  • Campbell, S., Greenwood, M., Prior, S., Shearer, T., Walkem, K., Young, S., ... & Walker, K. (2020). Purposive sampling: complex or simple? Research case examples. Journal of Research in Nursing, 25(8), 652-661.
  • Carmona-Halty, M., Salanova, M., Llorens, S., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2021). Linking positive emotions and academic performance: The mediated role of academic psychological capital and academic engagement. Current Psychology, 40, 2938-2947.
  • Carmona-Halty, M., Schaufeli, W. B., & Salanova, M. (2019). Good relationships, good performance: the mediating role of psychological capital–a three-wave study among students. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 306.
  • Chemers, M. M., Hu, L. T., & Garcia, B. F. (2001). Academic self-efficacy and first year university student performance and adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 55-64.
  • Chen, P. L., Lin, C. H., Lin, I. H., & Lo, C. O. (2022). The mediating effects of psychological capital and academic self-efficacy on learning outcomes of college freshmen. Psychological Reports, 126(5), 2489-2510.
  • Chi, L. C., Tang, T. C., & Tang, E. (2023). Psychometric properties of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students (UWES-S) in the Taiwanese context. Current Psychology, 42(31), 27428-27441.
  • Code, J. (2020). Agency for learning: Intention, motivation, self-efficacy and self-regulation. Frontiers in Genetics, 5, 19.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2015). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson.
  • Creswell, J. W. (2021). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Sage.
  • Cross, F. L., Marchand, A. D., Medina, M., Villafuerte, A., & Rivas‐Drake, D. (2019). Academic socialization, parental educational expectations, and academic self‐efficacy among Latino adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 56(4), 483-496.
  • Curran, T., & Hill, A. P. (2022). Young people’s perceptions of their parents’ expectations and criticism are increasing over time: Implications for perfectionism. Psychological Bulletin, 148(1-2), 107–128.
  • Datu, J. A. D., & Buenconsejo, J. U. (2021). Academic engagement and achievement predict career adaptability. The Career Development Quarterly, 69(1), 34-48.
  • Eccles, J. (1983). Expectancies, values and academic behaviors. Achievement and achievement motives. In R. C. Atkinson, G. Lindzey & R. E. Thompson (Eds.), A series of books in psychology (pp. 75-146). W. H. Freeman & Company.
  • Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2020). From expectancy-value theory to situated expectancy-value theory: A developmental, social cognitive, and sociocultural perspective on motivation. Contemporary educational psychology, 61, 101859.
  • Gaxiola Romero, J. C., Pineda Domínguez, A., Gaxiola Villa, E., & González Lugo, S. (2022). Positive family environment, general distress, subjective well-being, and academic engagement among high school students before and during the COVID-19 outbreak. School Psychology International, 43(2), 111-134.
  • Gençoğlu, C., Şahin, E., & Topkaya, N. (2018). General self-efficacy and forgiveness of self, others, and situations as predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress in university students. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 18(3), 605-626.
  • Goldman, J. A., & Bell, S. C. B. (2022). Student and faculty coping and impacts on academic success in response to COVID-19. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Education, 11(1), 74-91.
  • Gutiérrez, M., Sancho, P., Galiana, L., & Tomás, J. M. (2018). Autonomy support, psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement and academic success: A mediation model. Universitas Psychologica, 17(5), 1-12.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: a theory relating self and affect. Psychological review, 94(3), 319-340.
  • Hollister, B., Nair, P., Hill-Lindsay, S., & Chukoskie, L. (2022). Engagement in online learning: student attitudes and behavior during COVID-19. Frontiers in Education, 7, 851019.
  • Hughes, J. N., & Cao, Q. (2018). Trajectories of teacher-student warmth and conflict at the transition to middle school: Effects on academic engagement and achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 67, 148-162.
  • Jeynes, W. H. (2024). A meta-analysis: The relationship between the parental expectations component of parental involvement with students’ academic achievement. Urban education, 59(1), 63-95.
  • Jiang, K., Liu, J., Liu, C., Guo, X., Zhou, H., Lv, B., Liu, Z., & Luo, L. (2019). The discrepancy of parents’ theories of intelligence and parental involvement. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 1231.
  • Kamanda, H. (2020). The role of expectations in the educational experience and professional socialization of engineering students. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 20(15), 49-67.
  • Khan, M. (2023). Academic self-efficacy, coping, and academic performance in college. International Journal of undergraduate research and creative activities, 5(1), 3.
  • Kumar, J. A., Bervell, B., Annamalai, N., & Osman, S. (2020). Behavioral intention to use mobile learning: Evaluating the role of self-efficacy, subjective norm, and WhatsApp use habit. IEEE Access, 8, 208058-208074.
  • Lee, M., Shin, D. D., & Bong, M. (2020). Boys are affected by their parents more than girls are: Parents’ utility value socialization in science. Journal of youth and adolescence, 49(1), 87-101.
  • López-Aguilar, D., Álvarez-Pérez, P. R., & Garcés-Delgado, Y. (2021). Academic engagement and its impact on undergraduate student performance at the University of La Laguna. RELIEVE-Revista Electrónica de Investigación y Evaluación Educativa, 27(1), 21169.
  • Ma, Y., Siu, A., & Tse, W. S. (2018). The role of high parental expectations in adolescents’ academic performance and depression in Hong Kong. Journal of family issues, 39(9), 2505-2522.
  • Mukaka, M. M. (2012). A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Medical Journal, 24(3), 69-71.
  • Omari, H. A. (2018). Analysis of the intended learning outcomes and learning activities of Action Pack textbooks in Jordan. Modern Applied Science, 12(5), 60-71.
  • Overholser, B. R., & Sowinski, K. M. (2008). Biostatistics primer: part 2. Nutrition in clinical practice, 23(1), 76-84.
  • Pan, X. (2022). Exploring the multidimensional relationships between educational situation perception, teacher support, online learning engagement, and academic self-efficacy in technology-based language learning. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1000069.
  • Pan, Z., Wang, Y., & Derakhshan, A. (2023). Unpacking Chinese EFL students’ academic engagement and psychological well-being: The roles of language teachers’ affective scaffolding. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 52(5), 1799-1819.
  • Perkmann, M., Salandra, R., Tartari, V., McKelvey, M., & Hughes, A. (2021). Academic engagement: A review of the literature 2011-2019. Research policy, 50(1), 104114.
  • Pinquart, M., & Ebeling, M. (2020). Parental educational expectations and academic achievement in children and adolescents—a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 32(2), 463-480.
  • Qi, W., Qin, Y., Sang, G., & Wang, N. (2023). Family functioning and learning engagement of junior high school students in rural China: the mediating effect of academic self-efficacy. Educational Psychology, 43(2-3), 137-154.
  • Rappleye, J., & Komatsu, H. (2018). Stereotypes as Anglo-American exam ritual? Comparisons of students’ exam anxiety in East Asia, America, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Oxford Review of Education, 44(6), 730-754.
  • Robijn, W., Euwema, M. C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Deprez, J. (2020). Leaders, teams and work engagement: a basic needs perspective. Career Development International, 25(4), 373–388.
  • Salas‐Pilco, S. Z., Yang, Y., & Zhang, Z. (2022). Student engagement in online learning in Latin American higher education during the COVID‐19 pandemic: A systematic review. British Journal of Educational Technology, 53(3), 593-619.
  • Sandoval-Muñoz, M. J., Mayorga-Muñoz, C. J., Elgueta-Sepúlveda, H. E., Soto-Higuera, A. I., Viveros-Lopomo, J., & Riquelme Sandoval, S. V. (2018). School Engagement and Motivation: A Conceptual Discussion. Revista Educación, 42(2), 66-79.
  • Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and psychological measurement, 66(4), 701-716.
  • Schaufeli, W. B., Martinez, I., Marques, P. A., Salanova, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). Burnout and engagement in university students: across national study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 464–481.
  • Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of burnout and engagement: a simple confirmatory analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3, 71–92.
  • Schlechter, P., Hellmann, J. H., & Morina, N. (2022). Self-discrepancy, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being: the role of affective style and self-efficacy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 46(6), 1075-1086.
  • Schunk, D. H., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2022). Academic self-efficacy. In K.-A. Allen, M. J. Furlong, D. Vella-Brodrick, & S. M. Suldo (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 268-282). Routledge.
  • Selzler, A. M., Moore, V., Habash, R., Ellerton, L., Lenton, E., Goldstein, R., & Brooks, D. (2020). The relationship between self-efficacy, functional exercise capacity and physical activity in people with COPD: a systematic review and meta-analyses. COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 17(4), 452-461.
  • Shih, S. S. (2021). Factors related to Taiwanese adolescents’ academic engagement and achievement goal orientations. The Journal of Educational Research, 114(1), 1-12.
  • Sokhanvar, Z., Salehi, K., & Sokhanvar, F. (2021). Advantages of authentic assessment for improving the learning experience and employability skills of higher education students: A systematic literature review. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 70, 101030.
  • Suckert, L. (2022). Back to the future. sociological perspectives on expectations, aspirations and imagined futures. European Journal of Sociology/Archives Européennes de Sociologie, 63(3), 393-428.
  • Urhahne, D., & Wijnia, L. (2023). Theories of motivation in education: An integrative framework. Educational Psychology Review, 35(2), 45.
  • Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. Wiley & Sons.
  • Wang, C., Nie, Y., Ma, C., & Lan, X. (2022). More parental Guan, more academic engagement? Examining the moderating roles of adolescents’ gender and reciprocal filial piety. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 183(1), 78-90.
  • Wang, L. F., & Heppner, P. P. (2002). Assessing the impact of parental expectations and psychological distress on Taiwanese college students. The Counseling Psychologist, 30(4), 582-608.
  • Wolverton, C. C., Hollier, B. N. G., & Lanier, P. A. (2020). The impact of computer self-efficacy on student engagement and group satisfaction in online business courses. Electronic Journal of E-learning, 18(2), pp175-188.
  • Wu, K., Wang, F., Wang, W., & Li, Y. (2022). Parents’ education anxiety and children’s academic burnout: The role of parental burnout and family function. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 764824.
  • Yang, J., Xu, J., & Zhang, H. (2022). Resiliency and academic engagement: A moderated mediation model. Psychology in the Schools, 59(5), 900-914.
  • Yokoyama, S. (2019). Academic self-efficacy and academic performance in online learning: A mini review. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2794.
  • Zhao, Y., Zheng, Z., Pan, C., & Zhou, L. (2021). Self-esteem and academic engagement among adolescents: A moderated mediation model. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 690828.
  • Zimmerman, B. J. (1995). Self-regulation involves more than metacognition: A social cognitive perspective. Educational psychologist, 30(4), 217-221.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.