Cooperative model, digital game, and augmented reality-based learning to enhance students’ critical thinking skills and learning motivation
Iqbal A. Rizki 1, Nadi Suprapto 1 * , Hanandita V. Saphira 1, Yusril Alfarizy 1, Riski Ramadani 1, Aulia D. Saputri 2, Dewi Suryani 3
More Detail
1 Department of Physics Education, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia
2 Department of Informatics Engineering, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia
3 SMA Negeri 3 Sidoarjo, Sidoarjo, Indonesia
* Corresponding Author


Low levels of critical thinking skills and learning motivation, particularly in physics learning, pose significant challenges that must be promptly addressed to ensure students' future success. To tackle this issue, the present study endeavors to develop a Cooperative Model, Digital Game, and Augmented Reality (CAP)-based learning, which is both valid and practical, to enhance these crucial aspects effectively. This study used Educational Design Research through a non-equivalent control group design in the data collection process. Using purposive sampling method, 54 high school students were divided into two classes were involved. The data collection period was from July to August 2022. The research instruments used include syllabus, lesson plan, Adventuring Physics media, critical thinking test instrument, motivation questionnaire, student response questionnaire, validation questionnaire, and observation sheet. Statistical tests used include descriptive, paired, and independent t-tests. The results reveal that the learning products and instruments exhibit strong validity and reliability, alongside a high degree of practicality in their implementation. The experimental group demonstrated a notable improvement both in critical thinking skills and learning motivation. Additionally, students' feedback regarding this learning approach has been overwhelmingly positive. Consequently, this research highlights the importance of fostering more engaging and enjoyable innovations through digital learning in physics education to achieve optimal learning outcomes and enhance 21st-century skills.



  • Anderson, J. R., Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. A. (1996). Situated learning and education. Educational Researcher, 25(4), 5–11.
  • Arends, R. I. (2011). Learning to teach. McGraw-Hill Education.
  • Auliya, R. N., & Munasiah, M. (2019). Mathematics learning instrument using augmented reality for learning 3D geometry. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1318(1), 12069.
  • Bestiantono, D. S., Sa’diyah, E. H., Rachmatya, R., Mubarok, H., Adam, A. S., & Suprapto, N. (2019). University Students’ misconception in electromagnetism. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1417(1).
  • Biasutti, M., & Frate, S. (2018). Group metacognition in online collaborative learning: validity and reliability of the group metacognition scale (GMS). Educational Technology Research and Development, 66(6), 1321–1338.
  • Brown, P. C., Roediger III, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2014). Make it stick: the science of successful learning. Belknap Press.
  • Byusa, E., Kampire, E., & Mwesigye, A. R. (2022). Game-based learning approach on students’ motivation and understanding of chemistry concepts: A systematic review of literature. Heliyon, 8(5), e09541.
  • Camilleri, M. A., & Camilleri, A. C. (2017). Digital learning resources and ubiquitous technologies in education. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 22(1), 65–82.
  • Chen, P.-Y., Hwang, G.-J., Yeh, S.-Y., Chen, Y.-T., Chen, T.-W., & Chien, C.-H. (2022). Three decades of game-based learning in science and mathematics education: an integrated bibliometric analysis and systematic review. Journal of Computers in Education, 9(3), 455–476.
  • Cloude, E. B., Taub, M., Lester, J., & Azevedo, R. (2019). The role of achievement goal orientation on metacognitive process use in game-based learning. In N. Wang, G. Rebolledo-Mendez, N. Matsuda, O. C. Santos, V. Dimitrova (Eds.), AIED 2019: Artificial Intelligence in Education (pp. 36–40). Springer.
  • Cohen, L., Manion, L., Morrison, K., & Wyse, D. (2010). A Guide to teaching practice. Routledge.
  • Cook, D. A., & Beckman, T. J. (2006). Current concepts in validity and reliability for psychometric instruments: theory and application. The American Journal of Medicine, 119(2), 166.e7-16.
  • Davidson, S. J., & Candy, L. (2016). Teaching ebp using game-based learning: improving the student experience. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 13(4), 285–293.
  • Dele-Ajayi, O., Strachan, R., Anderson, E. V., & Victor, A. M. (2019). Technology-enhanced teaching: a technology acceptance model to study teachers’ intentions to use digital games in the classroom. In P. K. Imbrie (ed.), 2019 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE) (pp. 1–8). IEEE.
  • Duncan, K. J. (2020). Examining the effects of immersive game-based learning on student engagement and the development of collaboration, communication, creativity and critical thinking. TechTrends, 64(3), 514–524.
  • Eymur, G., & Geban, Ö. (2017). The Collaboration of cooperative learning and conceptual change: enhancing the students’ understanding of chemical bonding concepts. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(5), 853–871.
  • Faridi, H., Tuli, N., Mantri, A., Singh, G., & Gargrish, S. (2021). A framework utilizing augmented reality to improve critical thinking ability and learning gain of the students in Physics. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 29(1), 258–273.
  • Fulya Eyupoglu, T., & Nietfeld, J. L. (2019). Intrinsic motivation in game-based learning environments. In D. Ifenthaler & Y. J. Kim (Eds.), Game-Based Assessment Revisited (pp. 85–102). Springer.
  • Gull, F., & Shehzad, S. (2015). Effects of cooperative learning on students’ academic achievement. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 9(3), 246–255.
  • Hake, R. (1999). Analyzing change/gain score. Indiana University.
  • Hao, K. C., & Lee, L. C. (2021). The development and evaluation of an educational game integrating augmented reality, ARCS model, and types of games for English experiment learning: an analysis of learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 29(7), 1101–1114.
  • Hariadi, B., Jatmiko, B., Sunarto, M. J. D., Prahani, B. K., Sagirani, T., Amelia, T., & Lemantara, J. (2022). Higher order thinking skills based learning outcomes improvement with blended web mobile learning model. International Journal of Instruction, 15(2), 565–578.
  • Hartt, M., Hosseini, H., & Mostafapour, M. (2020). Game on: exploring the effectiveness of game-based learning. Planning Practice & Research, 35(5), 589–604.
  • Hasibuan, S., & Chairad, M. (2023). The Development of augmented reality (ar) in anatomy course. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 11(3), 744–754.
  • Hidajat, F. A. (2023). Augmented reality applications for mathematical creativity: a systematic review. Journal of Computers in Education. Advance online publication.
  • Hoareau, L., Thomas, A., Tazouti, Y., Dinet, J., Luxembourger, C., & Jarlégan, A. (2021). Beliefs about digital technologies and teachers’ acceptance of an educational app for preschoolers. Computers & Education, 172, 104264.
  • Huang, M.-Y., Tu, H.-Y., Wang, W.-Y., Chen, J.-F., Yu, Y.-T., & Chou, C.-C. (2017). Effects of cooperative learning and concept mapping intervention on critical thinking and basketball skills in elementary school. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 207–216.
  • Huizenga, J., Admiraal, W., Akkerman, S., & Dam, G. (2009). Mobile game-based learning in secondary education: engagement, motivation and learning in a mobile city game. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25(4), 332–344.
  • Hung, C.-M., Huang, I., & Hwang, G.-J. (2014). Effects of digital game-based learning on students’ self-efficacy, motivation, anxiety, and achievements in learning mathematics. Journal of Computers in Education, 1(2), 151–166.
  • Imran, R., Fatima, A., Elbayoumi Salem, I., & Allil, K. (2023). Teaching and learning delivery modes in higher education: Looking back to move forward post-COVID-19 era. The International Journal of Management Education, 21(2), 100805.
  • Ismara, K. I., Suharjono, A., & Supriadi, D. (2021). Ubiquitous learning in occupational health and safety for vocational education. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 10(1), 285–292.
  • Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2015). Models of teaching. Pearson.
  • Jufrida, J., Kurniawan, W., Astalini, A., Darmaji, D., Kurniawan, D. A., & Maya, W. A. (2019). Students’ attitude and motivation in mathematical physics. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 8(3), 401–408.
  • Keller, M. M., Neumann, K., & Fischer, H. E. (2017). The impact of physics teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and motivation on students’ achievement and interest. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(5), 586–614.
  • Khan, T., Johnston, K., & Ophoff, J. (2019). The impact of an augmented reality application on learning motivation of students. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2019, 1–14.
  • Kress, G., Jewitt, C., Ogborn, J., & Charalampos, T. (2001). Multimodal Teaching and learning: the rhetorics of the science classroom. Continuum.
  • Krouska, A., Troussas, C., & Sgouropoulou, C. (2022). Mobile game-based learning as a solution in COVID-19 era: Modeling the pedagogical affordance and student interactions. Education and Information Technologies, 27(1), 229–241.
  • Limatahu, I., Wasis, Sutoyo, S., & Prahani, B. K. (2018). Development of CCDSR teaching model to improve science process skills of pre-service physics teachers. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 17(5), 812–827.
  • Lin, Y.-C., & Hou, H.-T. (2022). The evaluation of a scaffolding-based augmented reality educational board game with competition-oriented and collaboration-oriented mechanisms: differences analysis of learning effectiveness, motivation, flow, and anxiety. Interactive Learning Environments, 2022, 1–20.
  • Loes, C. N., & Pascarella, E. T. (2017). Collaborative learning and critical thinking: testing the link. The Journal of Higher Education, 88(5), 726–753.
  • López Belmonte, J., Pozo Sánchez, S., Fuentes Cabrera, A., & Romero Rodríguez, J. M. (2020). Uses and integration of augmented reality in the educational cooperatives of Andalusia (Spain). Journal of Technology and Science Education, 10(1), 4–16.
  • Low, D. Y. S., Poh, P. E., & Tang, S. Y. (2022). Assessing the impact of augmented reality application on students’ learning motivation in chemical engineering. Education for Chemical Engineers, 39, 31–43.
  • Lutfi, A., Aftinia, F., & Permani, B. E. (2023). Gamification: game as a medium for learning chemistry to motivate and increase retention of students’ learning outcomes. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 13(1), 193–207.
  • Mahanal, S., Zubaidah, S., Sumiati, I. D., Sari, T. M., & Ismirawati, N. (2019). RICOSRE: A learning model to develop critical thinking skills for students with different academic abilities. International Journal of Instruction, 12(2), 417–434.
  • Mandagi, A. F., Iswanto, B. H., & Sugihartono, I. (2021). Virtual Microscopic Simulation (VMS) for physics learning of the photoelectric effect in high school. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2019(1), 12013.
  • Mao, W., Cui, Y., Chiu, M. M., & Lei, H. (2022). Effects of game-based learning on students’ critical thinking: a meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 59(8), 1682–1708.
  • Marougkas, A., Troussas, C., Krouska, A., & Sgouropoulou, C. (2023). How personalized and effective is immersive virtual reality in education? A systematic literature review for the last decade. Multimedia Tools and Applications. Advance online publication.
  • Marshman, E., & Singh, C. (2015). Framework for understanding the patterns of student difficulties in quantum mechanics. Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research, 11(2), 20119.
  • McKenney, S., & Reeves, T. C. (2014). Educational design research. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 131–140). Springer.
  • Mendo-Lázaro, S., León-del-Barco, B., Polo-del-Río, M.-I., & López-Ramos, V. M. (2022). The Impact of cooperative learning on university students’ academic goals. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 787210.
  • Morgan, G. A., Leech, N. L., Gloeckner, G. W., & Barrett, K. C. (2012). IBM SPSS for introductory statistics: use and interpretation. Routledge.
  • Nadeem, M., Lal, M., Cen, J., & Sharsheer, M. (2022). AR4FSM: Mobile augmented reality application in engineering education for finite-state machine understanding. Education Sciences, 12(8), 555.
  • Nadeem, M., Oroszlanyova, M., & Farag, W. (2023). Effect of digital game-based learning on student engagement and motivation. Computers, 12(9), 177.
  • Neswary, S. B. A., & Prahani, B. K. (2022). Profile of students’ physics critical thinking skills and application of problem based learning models assisted by digital books in physics learning in high school. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 8(2), 781–789.
  • Nieveen, N. (1999). Prototyping to reach product quality. In J. van den Akker, R. M. Branch, K. Gustafson, N. Nieveen, & T. Plomp (Eds.), Design Approaches and Tools in Education and Training (pp. 125-135). Springer.
  • Nolen, S. B. (1988). Reasons for studying: motivational orientations and study strategies. Cognition and Instruction, 5(4), 269–287.
  • Partovi, T., & Razavi, M. R. (2019). The effect of game-based learning on academic achievement motivation of elementary school students. Learning and Motivation, 68, 101592.
  • Prahanı, B. K., Saphıra, H. V., Wıbowo, F. C., Mısbah, & Sulaeman, N. F. (2022). Trend and visualization of virtual reality & augmented reality in physics learning from 2002-2021. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 19(4), 1096–1118.
  • Prahani, B. K., Ramadani, A. H., Kusumawati, D. H., Suprapto, N., Munasir, M., Madlazim, M., Jatmiko, B., Supardi, Z. A. I., Mubarok, H., Safitri, N. S., & Deta, U. A. (2020). ORNE learning model to improve problem - solving skills of physics bachelor candidates : an alternative learning in the Covid - 19 pandemic. Jurnal Penelitian Fisika Dan Aplikasinya (JPFA), 10(01), 71–80.
  • Rahayu, M. S. I., Kuswanto, H., & Pranowo, C. Y. (2021). Android-based carrom game comics integrated with discovery learning for physics teaching. In Supardi,N. A. Ariyanti,
  • I. Yunita (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Research, Implementation, and Education of Mathematics and Sciences (ICRIEMS 2020) (pp. 555–560). ICRIEMS.
  • Reynders, G., Lantz, J., Ruder, S. M., Stanford, C. L., & Cole, R. S. (2020). Rubrics to assess critical thinking and information processing in undergraduate STEM courses. International Journal of STEM Education, 7(9), 1–15.
  • Rink, J. E. (2013). Measuring Teacher effectiveness in physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84(4), 407–418.
  • Rizal, R., Rusdiana, D., Setiawan, W., & Siahaan, P. (2020). Students’ perception of learning management system supported smartphone: satisfaction analysis in online physics learning. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 9(4), 600–610.
  • Rizki, I. A., Saphira, H. V., Alfarizy, Y., Saputri, A. D., Ramadani, R., & Suprapto, N. (2023). Adventuring Physics: Integration of adventure game and augmented reality based on android in physics learning. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (IJIM), 17(1), 4–21.
  • Saphira, H. V., & Prahani, B. K. (2022). Profile of senior high school students’ critical thinking skills and the need of implementation pbl model assisted by augmented reality book. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains Indonesia, 10(3), 579–591.
  • Saphira, H. V., Rizki, I. A., Alfarizy, Y., Saputri, A. D., Ramadani, R., & Suprapto, N. (2022). Profile of students’ critical thinking skills in physics learning: a preliminary study of games application integrated augmented reality. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2377, 012088.
  • Sastradika, D., Iskandar, I., Syefrinando, B., & Shulman, F. (2021). Development of animation-based learning media to increase student’s motivation in learning physics. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1869(1), 12180.
  • Schunk, D. H. (2011). Learning theories: an educational perspective. Pearson.
  • Setiani, R., Sanjaya, I. G. M., & Jatmiko, B. (2019). ARICESA as an Alternative Learning Model to Improve Learning Motivation and Understanding of Student Concepts. International Journal of Instruction, 12(2), 383–398.
  • Shraim, K. Y. (2020). Quality standards in online education: The ISO/IEC 40180 framework. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(19), 22–36.
  • Siswanto, J., Susantini, E., & Jatmiko, B. (2018). Practicality and effectiveness of the IBMR teaching model to improve physics problem solving skills. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 17(3), 381–394.
  • Suliyanah, Deta, U. A., Kurniawan, F. K., Lestari, N. A., Yantidewi, M., Jauhariyah, M. N. R., & Prahani, B. K. (2021). Literature review on the use of educational physics games in improving learning outcomes. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1805(1), 010238.
  • Sung, H.-Y., & Hwang, G.-J. (2013). A collaborative game-based learning approach to improving students’ learning performance in science courses. Computers & Education, 63, 43–51.
  • Suprapto, N., Ibisono, H. S., & Mubarok, H. (2021). The use of physics pocketbook based on augmented reality on planetary motion to improve students’ learning achievement. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 11(2), 526–540.
  • Syawaludin, A., Gunarhadi, G., & Rintayati, P. (2019). Development of augmented reality-based interactive multimedia to improve critical thinking skills in science learning. International Journal of Instruction, 12(4), 331–344.
  • Taber, K. S. (2018). The use of cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education, 48(6), 1273–1296.
  • Tirta, G. A. R., Prabowo, P., & Kuntjoro, S. (2018). Development of physics teaching instruments belong to cooperative group investigation model to improve students self-efficacy and learning achievement. JPPS (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Sains), 7(2), 1464–1471.
  • Tran, V. D. (2019). Does Cooperative learning increase students’ motivation in learning? International Journal of Higher Education, 8(5), 12.
  • Tuan, H., Chin, C., & Shieh, S. (2005). The development of a questionnaire to measure students’ motivation towards science learning. International Journal of Science Education, 27(6), 639–654.
  • Tucker, C. R., Wycoff, T., & Green, J. T. (2016). Blended learning in action: A practical guide toward sustainable change. Corwin.
  • Türel, Y. K. (2011). An interactive whiteboard student survey: Development, validity and reliability. Computers & Education, 57(4), 2441–2450.
  • Uma’iyah, N., Wahyuni, S., & Nuha, U. (2023). Development of e-modules based on mobile learning applications to improve students’ critical thinking skills in science subject. JPPS (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Sains), 12(2), 122–137.
  • Wardoyo, C., Satrio, Y. D., Narmaditya, B. S., & Wibowo, A. (2021). Do technological knowledge and game-based learning promote students achievement: lesson from Indonesia. Heliyon, 7(11), e08467.
  • Warsah, I., Morganna, R., Uyun, M., Hamengkubuwono, H., & Afandi, M. (2021). The impact of collaborative learning on learners’ critical thinking skills. International Journal of Instruction, 14(2), 443–460.
  • Wibowo, F. C. (2023). Effects of augmented reality integration (ARI) based model physics independent learning (MPIL) for facilitating 21st-century skills (21-CS). Journal of Technology and Science Education, 13(1), 178–192.
  • Wilson, D., Alaniz, K., & Sikora, J. (2016). Digital media in today’s classrooms: the potential for meaningful teaching, learning, and assessment. Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Wirjawan, J. V.D., Pratama, D., Pratidhina, E., Wijaya, A., Untung, B., & Herwinarso. (2020). Development of smartphone app as media to learn impulse-momentum topics for high school students. International Journal of Instruction, 13(3), 17–30.
  • Xhomara, N. (2022). Critical thinking: student-centred teaching approach and personalised learning, as well as previous education achievements, contribute to critical thinking skills of students. International Journal of Learning and Change, 14(1), 101.
  • Yang, Y.-T. C., & Chang, C.-H. (2013). Empowering students through digital game authorship: Enhancing concentration, critical thinking, and academic achievement. Computers & Education, 68, 334–344.
  • Yu, J., Denham, A. R., & Searight, E. (2022). A systematic review of augmented reality game-based Learning in STEM education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 70(4), 1169–1194.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.